by, Paul Collin ( The UPI Guy at Project Camelot )
March 16, 2019
LOS ANGELES – March 16, 2019 – The following research report was originally produced in 2012, updated in 2013 and now again because its relative importance for the people of Earth.
Special Note –
On this particular topic, and my related reports, years of research along with my file notes have been kept and are by-far more extensive. I am, however, not in a current position to openly access such without a more secure environment for me to publicly provide the type of data more in-keeping with ‘why the title of this report was named as such and how it is closer to facts rather than fiction.
For those interested in ‘science-fiction’, I have specifically addressed how far back in American history that ‘actual science of antimatter’ paralleled what people ‘thought was science-fiction’ holding rather interesting similarities.
Resultant consequences of my own personal hardships ‘limited some key research notes and references’ however, I did provide what I could from memory.
For a better understanding on some of my current limitations, some were briefly outlined in a recent interview by Project Camelot.
Please support my voluntary work for Project Camelot audiences by clicking on the following link ( immediately below ):
Thank you, and please enjoy my report ( below ) beginning with a legend / list of pertinent vernaculars all relating to this report.
Please know this report also relates to why a few other reports ( e.g. ‘Vatican Observatory Intelligence’, and a few more to come at Project Camelot ) were written separately to only reveal ‘portions’ of a much larger picture not easily digested by most general public audiences; some, not as discerning as others.
Legend / List of Vernaculars ( includes some pertinent Research Reference links ) –
– Virgo A ( a Constellation of 5 ‘Cluster Galaxies’ );
– Supernovae ( a ‘dual galactic collision’ );
– Supermassive Black-Hole ( SmBH – the resultant effect of a Supernovae dual galaxy collision );
– Centaurus A ( Cen-A, A1847, NGC 5128, PKS 1322-427, 1RXH J132519.8-430312, CXOU J132519.9-43031 );
– Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB – inverse / reverse Compton effects, Cerenkov Light Radiation and Cerenkov Muon multi-messenger astroparticles );
– Relativistic Jets ( Whole Jet and Counter Jet, extragalactic SmBH inverse / reverse Compton effects, Cherenkov light radiation combining multi-messenger muon neutrino astroparticles );
– Atmosphere / Atmospherics;
– Oxygen ( Oxygen molecules ) / Ozone ( atmospheric oxygen layer;
– Tau Air-Showers ( invisible Cherenkov light muon Thomson scatter patterned atmospheric showers ) / STau;
– Planetary magmatic superconductivity excitations;
– Earthquakes, seismicity, Rifts ( ground upheavals );
– BowShock, Local InterStellar Cloud ( LIC ), InterStellar Medium ( ISM );
– NASA PlanetQuest ( Planet Quest );
– Living With a Star ( LWS ) U.S. Presidential Executive Order Programs and Projects [ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Living_With_a_Star ];
– U.S. President Executive Order ( 2004 – NASA missioned to locate exoplanets for Earth colonization ) [ georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2004/01/20040130-7.html ];
– ExoPlanetary exploration ( ExoPlanet – planets located outside the Earth solar system ) [ govinfo.library.unt.edu/moontomars/docs/M2MReportScreenFinal.pdf ];
– InterStellar SpaceCraft ( ISSC );
– InterStellar Propulsion;
– 120-Day Round-Trip Mission To Mars [ See, e.g. Research Reference notes ( further below – near bottom of page ];
– AntiProton, AntiHydrogen, Cold Dense AntiHydrogen energy developed by CERN ( Geneva, Switzerland ) [ arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0410511.pdf ];
– RAND CORPORATION ( AntiHydrogen propulsion development research – Santa Monica, California, USA );
– RAYTHEON CORPORATION ( AntiHydrogen propulsion application and development );
– ORBITAL SCIENCES CORPORATION ( AntiHydrogen energy propulsion test platform and demonstrator );
– BOEING CORPORATION ( AntiHydrogen Propulsion Systems );
– National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO );
– U.S. Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA );
– U.S. Air Force ( USAF );
– U.S. Navy ( USN ); and,
– U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA ).
Constellation Virgo A –
Virgo A, extragalactic resident attributes, consist of:
– Five ( 5 ) Galaxies ( positioned in ‘1 cluster’ within ‘Virgo A’ );
– One ( 1 ) Supermassive Black-Hole ( SmBH ) resultant from a ‘dual galactic collision’ ( 2 );
– Two ( 2 ) InterStellar Medium ( ISM ) BowShock Radio Frequency ( RF ) Wave Lobes ( Clouds ); and,
– Two ( 2 ) Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB ) Jets ( 1 Whole Jet headed toward Earth’s solar system and 1 Counter Jet headed in the opposite direction ).
Faster Than A Speeding Dash Of Light –
According to recent scientific reports, the central galactic universe source for ‘all Cosmic Rays’ ( CR ) continues ricocheting throughout our galactic universe today from, amongst many smaller extragalactic sources, one ( 1 ) lone Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB ) “Whole Jet” ( ‘not’ its dual counter-part, known as the “Counter Jet” heading toward the Big Bang center of our galactic Universe ) that occurred eons ago when two ( 2 ) large galaxies collided with one another forming what is known as a “SuperNovae” ( a ‘dual’ “Supernova” ) so powerful and so bright that its super explosion and consequential super collapse formed a “SuperMassive Black-Hole” ( SmBh ) wherefrom within its black-hole center its “Active Galactic Nucleus” ( AGN ) saw its ‘accretion disk’ spout from ‘both sides’ an immensely powerful Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB ) of Cherenkov light radiation ‘Photons’ ( ‘atomic’ particles ) that combinatorically merged with ‘neutrino’ ( sub-atomic’ particles ) “Muons” in-to what relatively recently identified scientifically to have formed what in essence became known as incredibly swift and overly powerful “Multi-Messenger” astroparticles of highly energetic blazing ( “Blazar” ) ‘superluminal’ ( faster than light-speed ‘motion’ ) “Whole Jet.”
ThIs Centaurus A ( CenA ) blazing ‘Whole Jet’ was ‘first ( 1st ) observed visually by the human naked eye of a star-gazing astronomer’ whose sightings were historically noted and later cited – ‘not a dot of light’ in the night sky – but an ‘angular’ or ’tilted’ position of ‘linear’ shaped ‘tiny brilliant dash of light’.
This particular dash of light was observed emminating out-of the “Scorpius-Centaur” extragalactic universe, and it was recorded as far back as the 16th Century in 1522 A.D.
Modern-day astronomers have identified this dash of light as beaming out from near the “Centaurus A” ( also known as ) “Cen-A” ( Cen A ) galaxy.
This dash of light is now recognized as the Centaurus A ( Cen-A ) galaxy Cerenkov-Muon multi-messenger astroparticle Gamma-Ray Burst of blazing blue-white light.
This Cen-A Whole Jet ‘beam diameter’ is about the same size as the diameter of our entire solar system so, what first appeared more than 500-years ago as only a ‘dash of light’ is slowly but surely becoming understood.
This same Centaurus A ( Cen-A ) beaming astroparticle ‘Whole Jet contains “Superluminous” light energy radiation elements moving at between six ( 6 ) times to forty-five ( 45 ) times faster than the speed of light.
The “Cen A” blazing ‘Whole Jet’ beam of Ultra-High-Energy multi-messenger astroparticles are also superluminally moving at 6 to 45 times faster than lightspeed.
The Cen-A GRB is precisely what was shot out of the Centauris A extragalactic Supermassive Black-Hole ( SmBH ), and the direction of this Blazar happens to be headed ‘forward in time’; away-from the center of our Universe where the Big Bang is theorized as having taken place very long ago.
Cen-A GRB Multi-Messenger Invisible Muon Astroparticles Impacting Earth –
That distant dash of light began catching up with Earth during December 2004 when it first burned the largest hole in our Earth’s “Ozone Layer” ( ‘Oxygen Atmosphere’ ) over the Corral Sea.
Shockingly ‘within’ 48-hours later, the Andaman – Sumatra Indonesia 9.3 magnitude Earthquake sent a Tsunami into multiple nations where nearly 350,000 people died.
Additionally unfortunate to note, is that not until very recently did these two ( 2 ) ‘seemingly dissimilar Earth Events’ finally become put together by astrophysicists and geoastrophysicists whom were never seen publicly broadcasting this information to the public through mainstream news media.
This Can’t Possibly Be Happening, Or Is It ?
Why was all this information kept away-from being broadcasted to World population centers?
What greater threat, on its approach to Earth, may we face ?
And, ‘where’ will it strike next ?
Is something being ‘done’ about this ? If not, why not ?
If national.governments simply ‘cannot’ protect its citizenry, or are unwilling-to protect people, what can people do ?
If this is all ‘real’, from ‘where’ can we ‘see it now’ in the night sky ?
Hidding far below North America –
Below Central America and South America in the Southern Hemisphere, is the location of Antarctica on the South Pole where very few people live and ‘only with special government permission’ to be there. Now, ‘why’ do such ‘restrictions’ forbid any human beings from simply visiting to see or witness anything there?
Why So Much Money Diverted To ‘Southern Hemisphere’ Based Programs, Projects And Facilities ?
Earth ‘Southern Hemisphere’ telescope observatories view this Centaurus A ( Cen-A ) galactic system hazard growing worse as it quickly nears our solar system, in-fact the National Science Foundation ( NSF ) has increased huge amounts of global investment fund monies into the South Pole Telescope ( SPT ), Pierre Auger Observatory Sud ( Argentina ), Cherenkov Telescope Array ( CTA ), plus so very many more.
NASA pressed Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) retrofits and its new space-based replacement James Webb Telescope Observatory in-addition to many multiple other ground-based and space-based telescope observatories around the world trying to calculate the ‘date when’ the Cen-A GRB particle beam jet is expected to eliminate all Earth oxygen particles.
How can this be? No one has heard anything on the news about this! This is ‘why’ this report was written, to notify the public to begin researching it for themselves because their governments are ‘no longer obligated to warn them of any pending natural disaster’, a new law just passed into effect for the United States during early 2012.
While the trajectory of this Cen-A GRB particle beam jet propagating velocity is directed just north and above our solar system the fact is that when this particle beam jet comes to within a range of 1,000 light-years away from Earth’s solar system it will become what scientists and astrophysicists and some members of government already know it has been labeled as, a “Planetary Atmosphere Killer.”
Earth already received a sample of the power involved within the Cen-A GRB particle beam jet when only a small scouting team of these particle beam entered Earth’s upper ionosphere from where it rained down into Earth’s oxygen atmosphere layer as recorded by detectors registering what are called “Tau Air-Showers” invisible pin-prick light streams characterized by straight line patterned Thomson scatter or self ricocheting sprays of intense radiation some just categorize as “Cosmic Rays” that hit Earth during latter December 2004.
Unfortunately, much more of the same is headed our way and such bombardments are continuing in intensity day by day with increasing frequencies too on Earth.
Enterprise Sustainability Black-Hole Economics
Public Private Partnership Program Project Sub-Contractor Sub-Program Sub-Projects
For more than 62-years, multiple trillions of dollars – allocated by authority of The World Bank through the International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) to multi-national foundations have been and continue being spent under auspices of “Global Initiatives” instituting multi-national government agreements utilizing private-sector businesses, vendor sub-contractors, universities, colleges, institutes coordinated by liaisons with think-tanks conceptualizing, theorizing, calculating, researching, developing, testing, designing, building, launching, maintaining, retrofitting and relaunching ground-based and space-based platform monitoring stations equipped with ultra advanced emerging technology remote sensing collectors, systems and devices feeding incalculable amounts of raw data into high-performance supercomputers with centralized network analytic technicians translating human comprehendible information back to yet other think-tanks developing plans to somehow carry a ‘few’ ( ‘not all’ ) human beings off Earth and out of harms way; away from the Cen-A GRB particle beam jet – that has included, but not been limited to, some ( ‘not all’ ) of the following target areas ( below ):
– Earth-based Deserts ( high altitude and low-altitude ), Mountains ( high-altitude ), Waterways ( natural ocean and artificially controlled man-made lake ) and Polar Ice ( South Pole ) regions; plus,
– Space-based Satellite Spacecraft platforms monitoring Earth solar system local space regions, deep space and ultra-deep space extragalactic spectral imaging sensor and particle collector ‘downstreams’ to ground-stations, plus ‘classified spacecraft mission retrievables ( i.e. ‘particle collection unit replacement modules’ and ‘data platens’ ).
Detailed information, although publicly available, remains unpackaged and unknown for public comprehension.
People, especially in the United States of America ( USA ), are so busy with distractions that they barely allow time in their daily life for so much as even a ‘partial news broadcast’ so, there is a better than even chance that people as a whole are not going to ‘make time for researching anything’ ( ‘if they knew how’ ) or even bother opening their local telephone book Yellow Page directory where, unfortunately ‘private researchers are not even listed’ in ‘local retail neighborhood directories’.
Just attempting to put all these galactic and technical observation puzzle pieces together into a ‘layman easily-read information package’ surrounding the Cen-A GRB particle beam headed toward Earth would not be difficult for the United States government. Why should government upset its citizenry status quo and that of market money heirarchy fueled by rat raced society today?
U.S. Government Printing Office ( Pueblo, Colorado, USA )
How does government sell a drastic change, to the way everyone currently lives their own lives today, without creating chaos?
How long will it take to fully adjust a global population?
You remember the pen name author George Orwell who wrote his book entitled “1984 ( printed in “1948″ ) that showed how future shock took place for citizen masses, and like any good snake oil salesman of yore, the key is all in how you pitch the new idea.
Living With AstroParticles ( LWA ) – Next Earth New Life Guides
– Oxygen Alternatives ( QxyAlt );
– OxyAlt Vitamin Energy Boosters ( Recreational Biosynthetic Narcotics By Rx Only );
– OxyAlt Breathing Boosters;
– OxyAlt Cosmetics ( Men & Women ); and,
U.S. Government Printing Office ( Pueblo, Colorado, USA ) may very well hold a type of guidebook for population centers remaining in the dark on such matters involving “Carbony1 Sulfide” alternatives most human beings on Earth today know absolutely nothing about that alter molecular structures defining new breathable gas mixtures substituting what we breathe today ( oxygen ) for what we will be breathing ( carbony1 sulfide mixtures ) in the future.
Only a few looming questions remain:
1. “Will Government Ever Announce This?”
2. “Why Didn’t Government Announce The 2004 Particle Beam Ozone Destruction?”
3. “Has Government Announced ‘Your Preparatory Time’ ( 15-years, 20-years, 35-years )?”
4. “When Will You Prepare Your Timetable?”
5. “Will You Continue Waiting For A Government Announcement That Will Never Come?”
6. “Did You Elect Government Control Over Your Life And That Of Your Family?”
The Cen-A Cherenkov particle beam GRB jet possesses other enhanced characteristics still being studied, however we do know this particular hazardous light radiation beam, is:
– High-Directional ( light-beam focus length );
– Thick ( approx. diameter of Earth’s solar system );
– Planetary Atmosphere Killer ( ‘incredibly superbright’ and ‘intensely hot photonic’ and ‘extremely hazardous radiation particles’; and,
– Distant Death Ray ( even as far away as 1,000 light-years from any planet’, these ‘GRB jet light beams’ instantly disintegrate oxygen molecules’ throughout entire atmospheric ( ozone layer ) layers.
Few planets are rich in ‘oxygen molecules’, however many planets in our solar system ‘do have some atmosphere’, although believed by many as humanly unbreathable, nevertheless Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) jets destroy oxygen molecules ‘above planets’ and recently discovered ‘within planets’ to some degree.
Space-borne “Ray” ( “Radiation” ) Relative Yet Confusing Terms –
– Cosmic Rays ( CR );
– Gamma-Rays ( GR );
– Gamma Ray Bursts ( GRB );
– Whole Jet ( WJ );
– Counter Jet ( CJ );
– Jet ( e.g. Cherenkov muon multi-messenger astroparticles – atomic and subatomic spaceborne particles );
– Stream ( e.g. Cherenkov muon multi-messenger astroparticles – atomic and subatomic spaceborne particles );
– Beam ( e.g. Cherenkov muon multi-messenger astroparticles – atomic and subatomic spaceborne particles );
– FlashLight ( e.g. Cherenkov muon multi-messenger astroparticles – atomic and subatomic spaceborne particles );
– Tau AirShowers ( e.g. Space-borne invisible but powerful light energy ‘astroparticles’ penetrate Earth atmospherics beneath where “Thomson scatter” ‘patterned astroparticles’ ricochet Ultra-High Energies ( UHE ) penetrate Earth surfaces ( ground and waterway floor beds ) down to varying depths – including more than 1-mile deep );
– Elves; and,
Modern day terms define any “vehicle” as an “engine driven carrying machine” – a ‘generalized term identifying certain objects’. Further name labeling identifies “vehicle” object ‘types’, specifically:
– Automobile ( Car );
– Motorcycle ( Motor-Bicycle / Motor Bike );
– ATV ( All Terrain Vehicle );
– Amphibian ( Amphibious Car / Boat / AS – Aerial Submersible );
– Boat ( Motorized Boat / Yacht / SailBoat / Jet-Ski );
– Submarine ( Submersible / Mini-Sub ); and,
– Train ( Locomotive );
– Airplane; and,
Cen-A GRB is our solar system major point of origin for ‘all’ “Cosmic Rays”
Cosmic Rays ( CR ) encapsulate, for the most part, extragalactic high-energy, power and light radiation level atomic and subatomic particle element energy propagation velocity phenomenon.
Cosmic Ray GRB jets consist of intertwined powerful behaviors, involving:
– ‘Atomic particles’ are ‘semi-visible Matter’, involving photons, protons, electrons, atoms, etc. we’ve all heard mentioned before; and,
– ‘Subatomic particles’ are ‘invisible AntiMatter’, involving neutrinos, muons, leptons, neutralinos, neutrinos, etc. we rarely hear anything about.
Neutrino type particles ‘penetrate planets and stars instantly’. In-fact, in ‘far less time than a human eye blink’ neutrino-like particles will penetrate a through solid rock or thermonuclear dynamos of any planet or sun and right out the other side shooting off into the rest of the universe ).
Subatomic neutrinos were believed by the public to typically pass through all Earth life human beings without any adverse affects as nothing appeared to happen, however, recent discoveries prove ‘subatomic particles’ ( penetrating incredible hard objects ) linked to ‘atomic particle radiation types’ and into the rest of galactic space ), e.g. Cherenkov muon light radiation, X-rays, Gamma-rays, Cosmic Rays ) beam ( 4,000 light-years long fro”Centaurus A” ( Cen-A ) GRB is known as the ‘brightest object from Earth’s southern sky telescope observatories.
Earth bombardments therefrom, consisting of certain Compton effect Cherenkov muon light radiation photonics bound with UltraHigh-Energy ( UHE ) extremely bright blue-white pin pricks of light of incredibly extreme heat intensity powered by ( multiple Trillion electron Volts / TeV) within two ( 2 ) Gamma-Ray Burst ( GRB ) jets streaming more than 4,000 lightyears in length – forward in time – out-of the accretion disk in a Supermassive Black-Hole ( SmBH ) resultant from a ‘dual galaxy collision’ Supernovae eons ago additionally producing a ‘dual lobe’ InterStellar Medium ( ISM ) Local Interstellar Cloud ( LIC ) packing two ( 2 ) bowshock gravitational wave shells travelling with incredible velocity already mushroomed now directly into the path of Earth’s solar system Sun.
What is being done to ‘protectively shelter Earth life’ and/or ‘prolong Earth life’?
Is Earth being abandoned? If so, ‘How’ and ‘When’?
Information was presented to the current President of the United States ( POTUS ) hurriedly co-signed his predecessor’s previous U.S. Presidential Executive Order ( EO ) instituting, the following:
Living With a Star ( LWS ) Program [ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_Order_13326 ].
Office of the President of the United States ( POTUS ) Executive Order ( EO ) 13326 Living With a Star Program [ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_Order_13326 ] involves something recently brought to light in the mainstream news media, surrounding:
– Exoplanetary Research, Exploration, Sustainability, and Colonization.
U.S. NASA Crazy? Like A Fox!
Former high-ranking U.S. military personnel retirees, usually enter private-sector industrial U.S. defense complex companies funded by U.S. government citizen tax dollars [ georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2004/01/20040130-7.html ] involving educational institution Programs building brilliantly talented student minds recruited into certain entities missioned with herculean tasks ( e.g. design, engineer, test, demonstrate and produce advanced projects for secret programs ) of which the BOEING interstellar spacecraft reality bought and built all of the aforementioned through [ patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2ocziFnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=6813330.PN.&OS=PN/6813330&RS=PN/6813330 ] RAYTHEON ( and other entities ) where employees had no clue their Project was only a ‘sub-Project’ for another larger Project that was part of a global network of sub-Programs tied into CERN ( Geneva, Switzerland ) that held 5 ( 5 ) other global Projects leading sub-Programs traversed in and out of several multinational government space Science & Technology ( S&T ) Programs leading many multiple sub-Project ultra-deep space ground-based and space-based observatory platforms retrofitted with new advanced adaptive optics, replacement mirrors, spectral sensor data imagery converters, extragalactic particle collectors.
CIA InterStellar Propulsion SpaceCraft Attains 1 Light-Year In 1 Earth-Year
What began to develop from using Soviet bloc country ( Russian ) physicists secretly smuggled in and out of the MCDONNELL DOUGLAS Space Systems Center “Quad Building” ( Huntington Beach, California, USA ) through today’s current successor BOEING Space Systems Center ( Huntington Beach, California ), RAYTHEON CORPORATION ( Waltham, MA ) and RAYTHEON SAS ( Space Acquisition Systems – El Segundo, California, USA ) has been discovered [ patents.justia.com/assignee/RAYTHEONCOMPANY.html ] selling what other foreign nations spent billions of dollars on CERN ( Geneva, Switzerland ) projects CERN secretly knew was its ‘sole mission’ for the United States of America, which was to: “Refine AntiMatter Hydrogen SubAtomic Production Into AntiHydrogen Propulsion Power” for a U.S. Interstellar SpaceShip. Sound ridiculous?
In 1986, RAND CORPORATION ( Santa Monica, California, USA ) was the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency ( C.I.A. ) Science and Technology ( S&T ) private-sector foreign intelligence contractor missioned to spy and steal secrets from physicists particularly inside Eastern Europe countries and governments ( Czechoslovakia, Soviet Union, et. al. ) and on Western Europe U.S. friendly foreign nations. RAND CORPORATION primary intelligence mission was for the U.S. government military to obtain Anti-Hydrogen propulsion power for its own extragalactic starship reports [ archive.org/download/DTIC_ADA229279/DTIC_ADA229279.pdf ].
In a novel published in 2000 that was turned into 2009 motion picture film entitled, “Angels & Demons,” a hidden vat of potentially explosive AntiHydrogen was depicted buried under the Holy Roman Catholic Church St. Peter Basilica cathedral ( Rome, Italy ), the CERN LBNL UCB physicists’ experiment numbers ( 38 ) of AntiHydrogen atoms and duration ( 1/10th of 1-second ) do not actually threaten the Vatican.
In 2002, CERN created the first ( 1st ) artificially produced Low-Energy ( LE ) antihydrogen atoms, consisting of a positron ( AntiMatter Electron / AntiElectron ) orbiting an AntiProton nucleus, but at that time atoms were ( striking normal ‘Matter’ ) were ( within microseconds ) instantly annihilated by Gamma-Rays.
Another CERN sub-Program sub-Project experimental test ( CPT symmetry ) named ALPHA ( Antihydrogen Laser Physics Apparatus ) involved global collaboration, including physicists from Lawrence-Livermore Berkeley National Laboratory ( LBNL – Berkeley, California ) and the University of California at Berkeley ( UCB ) TRAPping ( for a little more than 1/10th of 1-second ) a total of thirty-eight ( 38 ) AntiHydrogen atoms before instantly annihilating ( again ).
Later, another CERN sub-Project experiment named ATHENA, a larger global collaboration shutdown in 2004, first ( 1st ) detection of Cold AntiHydrogen.
Alladin Magic Lamp Powerful Genie Trapped
CERN sole purpose was to create Interstellar Propulsion Power for the United States of America BOEING starship, which CERN successfully accomplished after ‘creating tens of millions of AntiHydrogen atoms’.
CERN used autoresonance on Cold AntiProtons compressed into two ( 2 ) individual tiny ( 20 mm long x 1.4 mm diameter / size of a ‘wooden match-stick head’ ) tubular-shaped bubbles.
In 2004, two ( 2 ) tiny tubular bubble clouds were positioned within an ‘expensive’ hollowed-out bottle, an octupole superconducting magnet wall bottle ( lamp ), used to stablize UltraHigh-Energy ( UHE ) Trillion electron Volt ( TeV ) plasmodic discharges.
One ( 1 ) tiny ( 20-mm x 1.4-mm ) tubular-shaped bubble cloud was tasked to flow over the other ( 2nd ) tiny tubular-shaped bubble when the AntiHydrogen power was finally trapped in the containment tank ( bottle ).
There is barely any weight involved at all for propulsion power.
AntiHydrogen SubAtomic power had been harnessed for almost 3-years before the BOEING U.S. interstellar starship was witnessed on November 11, 2011.
Interstellar starship staring-plane mosaic guidance systems and antihydrogen energy propellant has been confidentially reported as already having made interstellar flights in a spaceship that has travelled “1 light-year away away from Earth in about 1 Earth-year,” and on November 11, 2011 at 8:15 p.m. such interstellar starship was viewed by two ( 2 ) adult men.
Believed under secret flight orders dispatched through the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO ) that dispacthes CIA overflight missions, the interstellar starship was recorded travelling silently above ground at an incredibly low altitude of approximately 1,000 feet and doing so at an incredibly slow speed of approximately 35-miles per hour. The men remarked at how such an incredibly huge elongated black triangle craft could even remain airborne while exhibiting such.
One ( 1 ) of the witnesses, was a former U.S. Air Force intelligence specialist who the following morning ( November 12, 2011 at 9:30 a.m. ) was visited by a retired Lieutenant General of the United States Air Force. Details of their conversation have not been released to the public to-date.
AntiMatter force deflection dematerializing space debris from otherwise penetrating the outer skin ( akin to ‘UltraViolet light zapping flying insects’ ) undoubtedly protected craft structural integrity of the BOEING interstellar starship ( “Enterprise III” ).
Exoplanetary Mission & Interstellar Spaceship ( NOA ARC ) Living With a Star Program – [ www.nasa.gov/pdf/60736main_M2M_report_small.pdf ] Moon, Mars and Beyond How ‘big’ would would an interstellar spacecraft need to be ‘extragalactic Noah Ark spacecraft’ be to ‘transport all Earth life’ out-of Earth’s current solar system to ‘another planet’ chosen as ‘suitable for sustaining human life?
Chances are more than likely today, that while much of the public is convinced ‘no human being ( living on Earth today )’ might ‘endure travelling at the speed of light’ ( or ‘live long enough throughout light-speed light-year distances’ ), CERN ( Geneva, Switzerland ) primary purpose was to develop interstellar propulsion power, which was successfully found in 2004 on behalf of the RAYTHEON CORPORATION to have already filed several [ patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect2=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&d=PALL&RefSrch=yes&Query=PN/6813330 ] U.S. Patents, one ( 1 ) patent of which subsequently led-up to the BOEING interstellar starship appearance on November 11, 2011 at a 1,000 foot altitude only a few miles south of RAYTHEON SAS ( El Segundo, California, USA ) and the Los Angeles Air Force Station Space Center, and 1-mile north of the U.S. National Petroleum Reserve facility adjacent the Port of Los Angeles in San Pedro, California but more specifically spotted by numerous witnesses at 8:15 p.m. navigating over Harbor City, California.
U.S. government secret spacecraft already travelling to other planets powered by already perfected CERN AntiHydrogen refinery fuel.
An anonymous individual indicated, “Yes, indeed!”
Reasons ‘why’ their so ‘sure’ –
1. Officially presented with officially-verified contract source text information;
2. Officially presented with officially-verified contract precise final diagramatics of the ‘interstellar propulsion antimatter containment tank’;
3. Officially presented with officially-verified color photographs of the antimatter propulsion system demonstrator test ( roof-mounted building bench test ) including color photo of opposing-positioned camera equipment; traced to multiple otherwise secret photographs; and,
4. Two ( 2 ) eyewitnesses whom together experienced ‘up-close’ ( less than 1,000-feet away ) and ‘very personal’ but short-viewing timeframe ( 15-minute ) of this particular U.S. antimatter propulsion interstellar spacecraft, a sharp-lined semi-flat and elongated version of what amounted to a “BattleStar Galactica” ( former American television series and film ) but not as clumsy looking as the scapecraft depicted on the TV series. Anonymous individual, believes the spacecraft seen was nothing more than a U.S. National Reconnaissance Office Advanced Programs Long-Range Spacecraft – ‘not’ a “NOA ARC” as pictured elsewhere.
Exoplanetary Earth Life Seedings –
Today ( 2012 ) it is no longer beyond belief and certainly within the realm of possibility to extragalactically transport, such things as ‘initial seedlings’:
A. “Early-Earth pure ( non-hybrid ) agricultural ( food ) seed storage;”
B. “Earth human genome structures ( genetic cryogenic ) storage;” and,
C. Humanoid tasking onboard spacecraft controls, certain experiments, and ‘other taskings’, See, e.g. International Space Station ( ISS ) Robonaut-2 ( R-2 ).
Earth Sudden Impact –
Why are details being kept away-from the global public?
Ask ‘difficult questions’, be prepared for ‘soft information’, and don’t be surprised when you see what Anonymous witnessed with others.
Non-status-quo independent conceptualists are endangered low commodity human species government prefers not want to see poisoning its sheep.
Ba ba black sheep, have you any ‘more’ wool – covering your eyes?
This concludes my legacy report with updated Research Reference webpages, download links and other historical research notes ( further below ) that some will only see as an ‘information data dump’ however, a few will find that information moreover as a treasure trove of enlightenment to even-better comprehend more sooner.
Submitted for review and commentary by,
Paul Collin, Unwanted Publicity Intelligence Guy ( The UPI Guy, at Project Camelot )
– – – –
RESEARCH NOTES ( Historical – Other ) –
Astronautics Laboratory ( AL )
Air Force Space Technology Center ( AFSTC )
Space Systems Division ( SSD )
Air Force Systems Command ( AFSC )
Edwards Air Force Base ( EAFB )
ROBERT C. CORLEY
Deputy Director, Astronautical Sciences Division;
Dr. FRANKLIN B. MEAD JR.
Project Manager, Astronautics Laboratory ( AL / TEL: (805) 275-5540 );
USAF CAPTAIN CLARENCE C. COLEMAN, Project Manager, ‘Chief of Advanced Concepts Branch’.
This final report was submitted by MCDONNELL-DOUGLAS CO. Space Systems Center on completion of Contract Number: F04611-87-C-0092 with the Air Force Systems Command ( AFSC ) Astronautics Laboratory ( AL ), Edwards Air Force Base, CA.
Project Time Period: September 1987 – January 1989
FUSION PROPULSION STUDY, by:
V.E. Haloulakos ( MCDONNELL-DOUGLAS CO. Space Systems Center – 5301 Bolsa Avenue, Huntington Beach, CA 92647 ); and,
R.F. Bourque ( GENERAL ATOMICS – P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92138 )
Date of Report: June 1989
Orbit Transfer Vehicles.
This study explored the potential of ‘fusion propulsion for Air Force missions’.
‘Fusion fuels’ and ‘existing confinement concepts’ were evaluated according to elaborate criteria.
Two [ 2 ] fuels:
– Deuterium – Tritium; and,
– Deuterium – Helium 3 ( D-3He )
Were considered worthy of further consideration.
D-3He ‘was selected’ as ‘the most attractive for this Air Force study’.
The “Colliding Translating Compact Torus Confinement Concept” was evaluated in depth and found to possibly possess the ‘low mass’ and ‘compactness’ required.
Another possible concept is ‘inertial confine-ment’ with the ‘propellant surrounding the target’.
A key issue for any ‘long-burn concept’ is ‘propellant addition’ without interfering with the fusion burn.
This is required to ‘increase thrust’ and ‘generate an optimum specific impulse’ for a given mission.
A ‘Reusable Orbit Transfer Vehicle’ ( ROTV ) [ <?> “X-33” <?> ] was ‘identified as a mission and application’ where ‘fusion propulsion’ can play a constructive role and ‘is superior’ to both cryogenic chemical bipropellant and nuclear fission propulsion systems.
Numerous technical and technological problems were identified, and a ‘Development Program’ is recommended.
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History Of Fusion Propulsion –
The exploration of rocket propulsion by fusion power has been studied off and on over the last three decades [ 30-ywars ].
Concepts have ranged from a ‘pulsed fusion rocket’ – using large Inertially-Confined Fusion ( ICF ) blasts – to a RamJet Fusion rocket.
In most of these, it was assumed that controlled energy release from fusion – using advanced fuels – would be feasible.
Other concepts considered the possibility of a thermonuclear explosion contained within a blast chamber while then propellant was being expelled through a nozzle.
A schematic of the history of nuclear pulse propulsion [ Fig. 1 ].
Typical of the work in the 1960s and 1970s is the work at NASA, and at AEROJET-GENERAL.
In the NASA scheme, a fusion reactor was assumed to supply an escaping plasma mixed with additional propellant to escape through a nozzle, thereby providing the necessary thrust.
It was assumed that self-sustaining D-3He [ Deuterium – Helium 3 ] fusion or D-D [ Deuterium – Deuterium ] fusion could be obtained either in a single-ended or double-ended open system, or from a closed magnetic configuration. There were problems posed by the conversion of the thermal energy – of the reacting plasma – to an exhaust jet. These problems persist and are discussed in this report.
In the AEROJET-GENERAL Study, the reacting D-3He [ Deuterium – Helium 3 ] plasma was assumed to exist within a multi-polar magnetic confinement geometry. Rough estimates of rocket-motor optimization showed potential for a very high specific impulse ( e.g., with 25 MW in the exhaust jet, the hypothetical motor could have a specific impulse in the range 5000 to 10000 s). The resultant power-to-weight ratio, for the fusion rocket motor, indicated a possible improvement of an order of magnitude over the best foreseeable uranium fission-electric systems.
Summary Of Accomplishments –
As mentioned above, the general goal of this study was to bring this topic of fusion propulsion up-to-date by incorporating the most recent advances in fusion research.
Specific objectives were to evaluate ‘fusion fuel’ and current ‘fusion confinement’ concepts and, selecting one [ 1 ] of each, perform a fairly detailed scoping analysis.
Fusion fuels and concepts were evaluated based on sets of weighted criteria.
Each major topic of the study is discussed in individually dedicated sections in the following order:
1. Air Force Missions:
Missions where fusion propulsion may play a constructive role are discussed, with the key question being whether fusion is suitable for:
a. near-Earth and cislunar missions; or limited to,
b. Deep Space activities.
2. Fusion Fuels:
The many candidate fusion fuels are discussed and evaluated, their evaluation criteria including such things as power density, neutron production, temperature required, availability and radioactivity.
3. Fusion Reactors:
Numerous fusion confinement concepts are evaluated with emphasis on their suitability for space propulsion. The key requirements for such an application being the mass and envelope of the power plant.
4. Translating Compact Torus ( TCT ):
This reactor concept was selected and studied in detail because of its potential of compact size and high power density.
5. Systems/Mission Analysis:
Special sections are dedicated in the studies which evaluated the various candidate systems and assessed their performance capabilities to accomplish the selected missions.
A Reusable Orbit Transfer Vehicle ( ROTV ) is the system of choice upon which comparative trades and design studies were made for chemical cryogenic, nuclear fission and fusion propulsion systems.
6. Issues, Plans and Conclusions:
The numerous remaining issues, a suggested development plan for continuing work on fusion propulsion, and the final conclusions of the study are presented in the final sections of this report.
Additional details on a number of topics are included in a set of Appendices and a Special Addendum.
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Vehicle Design and Integration –
Typical Orbit Transfer Vehicles [ OTVs ] were defined and compared for their capabilities to perform a basic mission.
The defined task was the delivery of a 36,000-kg payload from Low Earth Orbit ( LEO ) to Geosynchronous ( GEO ) or other higher orbits ( X-GEO or HEO ).
The velocity requirements were set at 4,500 m/s and 9,000 m/s for 1-way and return missions, respectively.
Computer codes for vehicle / propulsion system design and integration were updated, checked out and validated against known vehicles from the SATURN-APOLLO and the NERVA Programs.
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Additional information and vehicle design data are given in the Addendum to this report.
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The issues of propulsion and power are the main drivers in the development and deployment of space launch vehicles and the quest for exploration and utilization of space.
This has been especially the case in the Air Force Space Program, from the early days of the ballistic missile programs to the present strategic sophisticated space-based payloads
Propulsion is a technology which, though by itself may be viewed as having no intrinsic value as such, is nevertheless the main “driver” for any system application which requires the moving, deployment, and positioning of payloads
Traditionally, chemical propulsion systems, liquid and solid, have been the “drivers and pushers” in missile and space vehicle applications.
In the area of systems applications, however, there has been a multitude of recent developments which lie beyond the capabilities of chemical propulsion and call for the development of new High-Energy and exotic rocket propulsion systems.
The primary needs in this area stem from the new USAF and other DOD or national goals and plans which call for missions that are very costly and in many cases beyond the capabilities of the presently available or near-future propulsion systems.
The USAF Project Forecast II ( AF PF II ), the Strategic Defense Initiative ( SDI ) [ StarWars ], and the report of the National Commission on Space ( NCOS ) to the President have identified numerous systems and technologies that are key elements to the achievement of the national goals.
Invariably, most of the missions planned involve the launching and/or delivery of payloads which are far beyond the capabilities of currently available systems.
Appropriately, therefore, the development of new sophisticated systems capable of producing both high thrust and high specific impulse ( e.g. Is > 1000 s ) have been called for.
In a study conducted by the Brookhaven National Laboratory ( BNL ) for the Air Force Astronautics Laboratory ( AFAL ), numerous missions and payload deliveries were identified which are far beyond the capabilities of the Centaur G ( 02/H-1, Is = 452 s ) vehicle, but could be performed rather well with similar vehicles utilizing direct thermal nuclear propulsion ( H2, Is = 855 s, NH3, Is = 416 s ).
It becomes evident then that new propulsion systems which are reliable, safe, and economical, as well as of superior performance, are required, and, since more than one alternative may exist, comparative trade studies must be conducted.
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Air Force Mission Requirements –
The topic of the Air Force missions and their requirements was addressed by reviewing various applicable planning documents, visiting Air Force facilities, and interviewing certain key personnel at the Space Division ( SD ), and the RAND CORPORATION.
With the sample missions defined, further review and evaluation of ‘their requirements resulted in a list of propulsion system characteristics along with a set of pertinent evaluation criteria’, upon which the ‘evaluation and selection’ of ‘fusion concepts’ suitable for propulsion can be conducted.
In the sections that follow, the selected missions are listed, the propulsion system characteristics are formulated, and the evaluation criteria are defined.
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Aerospace Plane ( PS-23 ) –
A family of aerospace vehicles, both earth- and space-based, which allows rapid, flexible, reliable, survivable operations to and in space.
Hypervelocity vehicles comprise manned and unmanned vehicles that will allow rapid, low cost operations in strategic and space mission areas.
Development of new propulsion engines and lightweight / strong / durable materials are required.
Integrated airframe and engine designs are key to success as are leading-edge cooling and cryogenic storage methods.
Research and development programs, incorporating focused DoD and NASA efforts and industry IR&D, is the recommended programmatic approach.
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Reusable Orbit Transfer Vehicle (PS-28) –
A totally reusable vehicle for transporting payloads between low Earth orbit and higher ( up to several time geosynchronous ) orbits, enabling routine space operations, satellite retrieval, and ‘dormant sparing’.
The objective of this program is to provide affordable access to space through routine transportation between various orbits, and on-orbit repair and reconstitution of Space Systems, which will ultimately provide a truly operational space capability in support of ground, air, and space-based forces.
Space-Based Surveillance System (PS-32) –
An infrared space surveillance system for detection, identification, tracking and cataloging of spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit ( LEO ) and Geosynchronous (GEO ) orbit in support of USAF offensive and defensive space operations.
The objective of this development is to provide the demonstration of technology in large optics design, performance, and survivability to support the space-based space surveillance mission.
SBSS [ Space Based Surveillance System ] employs long wave length infrared [ I-R ] and visible light sensors to detect, track, and catalog space objects from space.
Current space surveillance systems are ground-based with coverage limited by their geographic locations and earth horizon.
Space Based Surveillance System ( SBSS ), if deployed, will have the following advantages over ground-based or airborne systems:
– wider volume of coverage;
– decreased time between revisit ( on any given target ); and,
– providing timely information ( in support of space operations ).
SBSS technologies are being pursued by Space Division and AFSC laboratories under the SDI ( Strategic Defense Initiative ) [ StarWars ] Program.
NOTE: An advanced-type propulsion system, e.g. fusion, could substantially enhance the value of this system. Further information on missions and systems is provided in the Addendum to this report.
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Another improvement, in this context, may arise from using Anti-Hydrogen ( an Antiproton surrounded by an orbiting positron ) as possible fuel.
For such AntiHydrogen, the storage restrictions in a trap would not be nearly as severe as in the case of the AntiProtons in a Penning type trap.
Thus, a ‘Hydrogen – AntiHydrogen mixture’ could be used to generate power for propulsion.
1. R.L. Forward, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory Report No. AFRPL TR-85-034 ( 1985 ).
2. U. Gastaldi and R. Klapisch, et. al., “Physics at LEAR with Low-Energy Cooled AntiProtons,” Plenum Press ( NY ) 1984.
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X-33 aeroshell and bell nozzle rocket engine launch vehicle
Patent number: US20020139901A1
The Antimatter Alternative
Steven D. Howe
Patent #: US6160263A
Container For Transporting AntiProtons
Assignee: Steven D. Howe
Inventor: Gerald A. Smith
Gerald A. Smith
Raymond A. Lewis
Steven D. Howe
IP GLOBAL HOLDINGS Inc.;
NANOLIFE HOLDINGS LLC; and,
Knobbe Martens Olson And Bear LLP.
Research References ( Other ) –
CIA, RAND, CERN and antimatter propulsion spacecraft for exoplanet colonization –
For such a military use to be realistic, a technology capable of producing enough AntiProtons for at least one AntiMatter trigger per day is needed.
This corresponds to a minimum production rate of 1,013 antiprotons per second, six ( 6 ) orders of magnitude higher than ( 107 AntiProtons per second ) at CERN today [ 2005 ].
But, in theory, there exist numerous ways to increase this rate.
What we were unaware of, was that since the summer of 1983, the RAND CORPORATION had been carrying out a study ( “examining the possibilities for exploiting the high energy release from matter-antimatter annihilation” ) for the U.S. Air Force.
Similar concerns had equally sprouted-up in Russia.
The RAND study was completed in 1984.
The version published in 1985 constitutes a serious evaluation of the development possibilities of such an undertaking, in view of military applications. According to this document, identitive evaluation of the possibility to produce and manipulate 1,013 AntiProtons per second, and the construction of ‘transportable AntiProton reservoirs’ [ tanks ], should be realized within the next five ( 5 ) to seven ( 7 ) years.
Many important technological problems being able to be studied with ordinary particles instead of antiprotons.
This same report mentions four ( 4 ) main categories of applications:
#1. Propulsion ( fuel for ultra-fast anti-missile rockets );
#2. Power generators ( light and ultra-compact orbital platforms for military );
#3. Directed Energy Weapons / DEW ( AntiHydrogen Beams or Pumped Plasma AntiProton Lasers relying on ‘very short duration’ energy releases ); and,
#4. Classified Additional ‘Special Weapons Roles’ ( various bombs triggered by AntiMatter ).
Research Reference –
Antimatter Weapons ( 1946 – 1986 ): From Fermi And Teller’s Speculations To The First Open Scientific Publications
by, Andre Gsponer and Jean-Pierre Hurni
July 19, 2005
Antimatter Weapons ( 1986 – 2006 ): From The Capture Of The First AntiProtons To The Production Of Cold AntiMatter
by, Andre Gsponer and Jean-Pierre Hurni
Over the years, the AntiProton, the AntiNeutron, and, indeed with the development of modern particle accelerators, all possible forms of antimatter that can be detected have been detected.
We have come to understand antimatter theoretically in terms of the CPT Theorem of modern held theory.
In an intuitive fashion, CPT Theorem indicates:
If one were to take a motion picture of a physical process, then change the ‘charges’ or ‘internal quantum numbers’ of the particles in the movie ( C ), run the them backwards
( T ), rotate oneself by 180 degrees, and then view it in a mirror – one would be ‘unable to distinguish difference in the laws of physics’ being viewed.
CPT Theorem states, every particle has an AntiParticle with, the:
i ) opposite electric charge;
ii ) opposite internal quantum numbers;
iii ) opposite magnetic moment;
iv ) same total lifetime; and,
v ) same ( inertial ) mass.
Although active searches continue for violations of this CPT Theorem, none have been found.
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The long range goal is to eventually obtain ‘condensed AntiHydrogen’ as either, a:
– Molecular Superfluid;
– Cluster Ion; or,
– DiaMagnetic Solid.
Such would allow a ‘compact source of AntiMatter’ to be used for Deep-Space propulsion; its use would be tremendously powerful.
Research Reference –
Controlled Antihydrogen Propulsion For NASA’s Future In Very Deep Space
Michael Martin Nietoa ( Theoretical Division MS-B285 – Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 );
Michael H. Holzscheiterb ( PBAR LABS LLC, 1601 Dove Street, Suite 170, Newport Beach, CA 92660 ); and,
Slava G. Turyshevc ( Jet Propulsion Laboratory / JPL, California Institute of Technology / CalTech, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 )
October 21, 2004
AntiMatter Propulsion System –
Evidently many attempts were made to discover the AntiProton, however only one ( 1 ) ‘non-Classified discovery’ was ever ‘publicly announced’, as follows:
In 1932, Carl David Anderson only ‘predicted’ the first ( 1st ) AntiParticle ever observed, which named it an ‘AntiElectron’ ( now known as ) ‘Positron’ while observing Cosmic Radiation when he noticed one Particle bearing the same mass as an Electron but it held an ‘opposite charge’. Only the ‘properties’ of “Positronium” were ‘predicted’ by Carl D. Anderson of Caltech in 1932.
In all actuality, it wasn’t until 1951 when Martin Deutsch ‘measured’ and ‘confirmed’ the existence of Positronium, a bound state of electrons and positrons whirling about each other.
‘Non-Classified’ “AntiMatter Weapon” Historicals –
More than 40 years old, ‘AntiMatter Weapons’, which may seem futuristic to many people today ( 2019 ), actually saw military importance in AntiMatter ‘being produced’ long ago, which means that around the same point in time ‘Science-Fiction stories’ were actually touching upon government classified secret subjects.
[ BEGIN – UPI Guy / KIR RESEARCH NOTE: Science-Fiction storylines versus Science Facts ( circa: 1929 – 1947 ) – ( BELOW ):
First Mention Of AntiMatter As A Weapon System
August 12, 2015
From Olaf Stapledon’s “Last and First Men” ( published around 1930 ):
“Unlimited power, derived partly from the artificial disintegration of atoms, partly from the actual annihilation of Matter through the union of electrons and Protons to form radiation”
Superficially, this sounds like Matter – AntiMatter annihilation, but it talks about the wrong particles:
– Protons and Electrons; rather than,
– Protons and AntiProtons.
Nonetheless, ‘it has a very specific feature of the theory of AntiMatter’: that ‘oppositely charged particles annihilate each other and release radiation’.
By around 1929 Dirac had derived a model of physics in which ‘particles came with oppositely charged pairs that would annihilate each other on contact’, ’emitting the combined energy of the particles in the form of radiation’. These oppositely charged particles later came to be known as AntiMatter.
At the beginning, however, Dirac thought that the positively charged partner of the electron in his theory must be the Proton. It’s only by 1931 that he was convinced that it didn’t make sense for the Proton to be the AntiParticle and Dirac instead proposed there must be a new particle, the ‘Positron’, which was later [ actually ] found in the lab.
In other words, ‘the theory Stapledon describes is precisely the state of the theory of AntiMatter at the time of publication of the book’.
Several years before Jack Williamson ( writing as Will Stewart ) began his Seetee series ( seetee = CT = ContraTerrene = AntiMatter ) with his serial “Opposites – React!” in Astounding Science-Fiction ( January 1943 ), a chemist and science-fiction writer John D. Clark, Ph. D. introduced AntiMatter ( as ‘Reverse Matter’ ) to science-fiction with his novelette “Minus Planet” in Astounding Stories ( April 1937 ).
EXAMPLE – Here ( immediately below ) is an explanation in the story, with its now out-dated theory of the Proton:
“You remember, when we first saw this thing, I put you through a quiz on matter? I had a hunch then, and I’ve proved it. You described the sort of matter with which we are familiar.
Look here. You said that matter was made up of neutrons and positrons, in the last analysis, in the nuclei, and of electrons on the outside.
Well, there is another sort of Matter possible. What is to prevent an electron from combining closely with a neutron, and forming a negative Proton?
The possibility was mentioned way back in 1934, and I think the old boy even gave his hypothetical particle a name – an ‘Antron,’ I think he called it.
Now take some of these Antrons, and some extra neutrons, and make a nucleus out of them and then release enough Positrons on the outside to balance the Antrons.
And one has an atom with a negative atomic number, since the atomic number of an atom, of course, is the number of positive charges on the nucleus.
And now one makes a whole universe with these minus elements.
And one makes oneself out of them too, and lives in the place, and ‘can’t tell the difference between it and a regular universe’.All the physical laws will be the same – but just wait until part of your new universe hits part of a regular universe!
Figure it out. What do you think will happen?
Uh – let’s see.
First the outer electrons in our Matter will neutralize the outer Positrons in the ‘Reverse Matter’ – and there’ll be a hell of a ‘lot of light’ or ‘other radiation’ – UV [ ultra violet ], gamma, cosmic and what not.
Then the nuclei will get together. Nothing will happen to either set of neutrons, but the ‘Positrons’ on the ‘Protons’ will neutralize the Electrons on the Antrons, and there’ll be another ‘burst of radiation’ and a lot of neutrons left over.
So the net result will be a ‘mob of neutrons and a flock of radiation’.
What do you think?
Is that thing out there” – he gestured toward the anomalous planet they were leaving behind – out of a ‘Reverse Universe’?”
As an aside …
t should be pointed out that an electron “combining with a neutron” to form a vaguely Proton-like particle with negative charge doesn’t really match what physicists mean by AntiMatter. In physics, an AntiProton is exactly like a Proton except for the fact that the charge is reversed. Likewise, a Positron is just like an electron with charge reversed.
And, neither an electron nor a Positron is believed to be composed of [ any ] ‘more’ basic particles.
UPI Research Note References –
– END OF UPI Guy / KIR RESEARCH NOTE ( ABOVE ) ].
For instance, Edward Teller ( father of the American H-bomb ) ideas of eventual military applications along with Enrico Fermi published a 1947 article on addressed capturing negative particles – heavier than electrons – by ‘Matter’.
Since 1945, about 59% of Edward Teller’s ‘Non-Classified’ publications, along with articles published by Andrei Sakharov ( father of the Russia H-bomb ), are concerned in one way or another with ‘AntiMatter’.
In 1950, 2-years before the explosion of the first ‘Hydrogen Bomb’, ignition by AntiMatter ( a mixture of Deuterium and Tritium ) were just being studied.
An article by A.S. Wightman ( studying the problem of ‘capturing AntiProtons’ by Deuterium and Tritium ), and J. Ashkin, T. Auerbach and R. Marschak ( trying to calculate results of ‘interactions between an AntiProton and a nucleus of ordinary Matter’ ), saw at that time major problems because there was ‘no experimental data’ available upon which to formulate a ‘precise prediction’ of ‘what would happen’ when a Proton and AntiProton particle came in contact with one another.
There were, however, good understandings of two ( 2 ) essential characteristics of such an annihilation reaction; a reaction where masses of one Particle and its AntiParticle were totally transformed into High-Energy ( H-E ).
Today, two ( 2 ) characteristics are still valid and apparently justifying the entire interest in AntiMatter, where:
Firstly ( 1st ), the release of ‘usable energy’ per unit mass being ‘greater in annihilation than in any other nuclear reaction’ where -one ( 1 ) Proton – AntiProton annihilation’ releases ‘300 X ( times ) more energy than a Fission or Fusion reaction’; and,
Secondly ( 2nd ), as AntiMatter is brought into proximity of Matter its ‘annihilation starts by itself’ ( automatically ) all ‘without’ any ‘critical mass’ ( as is needed in ‘Fission’ ) and ‘without’ any ‘ignition energy’ ( as is needed in ‘Fusion’ ) whatsoever.
In short, it is an ideal ‘nuclear trigger’ mechanism; only if ‘methods to produce’, ‘methods to manipulate’ and if ‘sufficient quantities of AntiMatter’ are available.
At that time, the ‘how’ and ‘when’ AntiMatter could be produced was claimed to be ‘unknown’ along with a number of fundamental questions as-to ‘annihilation’ additionally being claimed as missing back then.
Consequently, for several years ‘applied research’ concentrated more on ‘promising near-term techniques’ that were far less attractive for theoreticians.
Thusly, the problem of ‘igniting’ a “Hydrogen Bomb ” was resolved by using an “Atomic Bomb” as only a ‘triggering mechanism’; the consequence of which, left even the ‘existence’ of the “AntiProton” as ‘theoretical’; but, only until 1955.
With legacy era detectors, at that time, and only knowing ‘mass’ and ‘electrical charge’, it was practically impossible to identify ( with any certainty ) the “AntiProton” within Cosmic Radiation; and, such would have had to have been ‘artificially produced’ – but for ‘that’ to be accomplished only a ‘Particle Accelerator’ much more powerful than anything built at that time would be necessary.
Thirty ( 30 ) years later, a ‘complex group of technological machines’ necessary to ‘accumulate’ and ‘slow down’ AntiProtons would be conceived where the only system of such in the world would be built by a consortium of public-private ( government, corporations, universities and professionals ) partnershipping that established European Laboratory for Particle Physics ( CERN ) in Geneva, Switzerland.
Some results of CERN, published in August 1985, an estimation of the number of AntiProtons needed to start ThermoNuclear reactions, albeit to ‘ignite a Hydrogen Bomb’ or to ‘trigger the MicroExplosion of a ThermoNuclear Fuel Pellet’ – making possible the building of a Hydrogen Bomb or “Neutron Bomb” – saw their three ( 3 ) to five ( 5 ) KiloGrams of Plutonium reduced to only ‘one ( 1 ) MicroGram’ of “AntiHydrogen” inside what militaries call their “Clean Bomb” that explodes but with ‘minimal radioactive fallout’.
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Enabling Exploration Of Deep Space – High Density Storage Of Antimatter
by, Steven D. Howe ( of SYNERGISTIC TECHNOLOGIES INC. – Los Alamos, New Mexico ) and Gerald A. Smith ( of SYNERGISTIC TECHNOLOGIES INC. – Los Alamos, New Mexico )
35th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit
Published: June 20, 1999
Online Date: February 15, 2013
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics:
ANTIPROTON – CATALYZED MICROFISSION / FUSION PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR EXPLORATION OF THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM AND BEYOND, by:
R.A. Lewis; and,
Gerald A. Smith [ top three, from: SYNERGISTIC TECHNOLOGIES INC. – Los Alamos, New Mexico ], at:
Department of Physics
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
B. Dundore, at:
Department of Aerospace Engineering
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
S. Chakrabarti, at:
Department of Mechanical Engineering
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
Production and trapping of small numbers of antiprotons for space applications are reviewed, setting the stage for Antiproton-Catalyzed MicroFission / MicroFusion ( ACMF ) reactions as a source of propulsive power.
A spacecraft designed around an ACMF engine has been designed. Details, including Isp, thrust, structural features, power systems, radiation shields, ion drivers, payload and system masses, are reviewed.
Staging of the spacecraft in space, including requisite propulsion and trajectory parameters and scientific goals for aggressive ( Isp=13,000 sec, thrust=180 kN, ∆V=100 km/sec ) outer solar system and extraplanetary missions, is discussed.
ANTIPROTON – CATALYZED MICROFISSION / MICROFUSION –
In 1992 large fission and neutron yields from Antiproton annihilation at-rest in a natural uranium target were observed by our group.1
Calculations indicate that short bursts of Antiprotons could induce temperatures of several keV in a small compressed pellet.2
These conditions are appropriate for ignition of a hydrogen fusion burn within the microsphere.
Targets with yields up to 302 GJ have been considered, with compression provided by light ion beams or lasers.
Baseline parameters for ignition, are:
Antiproton energy, 1.2 MeV;
pulse length, 2 ns; and,
deposition volume, 1 mm3.
An experiment at the PHILLIPS LABORATORY ( Air Force Research Laboratory / AFRL at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico ) to demonstrate subcritical Antiproton – catalyzed microfission is in progress.3-7
Most of the energy from the microfission / microfusion process is in the form of radiation and hot ( 35 keV average temperature ) plasma.
Energy is produced, in a target, consisting of about 3.0 g of nuclear fuel.
The nuclear fuel is in a molar ratio of 9:1 of DT ( Deuterium – Tritium ): Uranium ( U-235 ).
Initially, the proportions of energy produced in the target, are:
15% neutron kinetic energy ( NKE ); and,
2% random ion and electron kinetic energy ( EKE ).
Since most of the energy is in the form of high energy radiation, a high Z material ( WLS ) is desired to absorb and re-radiate at lower frequencies ( temperatures ).
The purpose of this is, to optimize ablation of a thruster-shell exposed to this radiation.
The WLS is a spherical shell of 200 g of lead, which has a K-shell absorption edge near the peak of 115 keV for a spectrum with an average temperature of 35 keV.
Of the 302 GJ of energy generated in the target, 247 GJ is absorbed by the WLS.
This energy is distributed over the WLS volume according to a stellar photosphere model, 8 initially 5.6 keV at the center and 2.3 keV at the surface.
Since only a thin skin on the surface of the shell radiates, most of the lead is near the 5.6 KeV temperature, which corresponds to an ionization level of Z* = 75.
This temperature is not high enough to remove inner shell electrons, thus enabling continuing K-shell absorption of radiation.
Energy distributions of photons radiated from the photosphere around the WLS show a very significant shift of radiation down to a mean value of about 1 keV energy ( 204 GJ ), which greatly enhances the absorption of this radiation in the ablative thrust shell used in the ICAN-II spacecraft.
ICAN – II PROPULSION SYSTEM –
The basic premise of the explosion concept is that a spacecraft equipped with an adequate shock absorbing apparatus and a means of safely intercepting debris from a nuclear explosion could use the explosion energy to propel the craft at both high thrust and high Isp.
Historically, the first serious effort at this type of propulsion was the ORION pusher-plate system.
A more sophisticated system employing a polyethlyene canopy tethered to a winch ( MEDUSA ) has been proposed by J. Solem.
In the current version of the ICAN-II concept, a sector of a spherical silicon carbide ( SiC ) shell of 4 m radius is used to intercept radiation from the explosion.
This radiation heats the inner surface of the shell to keV temperatures, and the resultant expanding plasma produces thrust.
A schematic version of the ICAN-II spacecraft, including the engine at the aft end [ shown in Fig. 1 ]. Estimates of component masses for a 120 day, ∆V = 100 km/s Mars mission ( RT ) [ given in Table 1 ].
OTHER FEATURES OF ICAN II –
Additional major systems and performance characteristics of ICAN-II are reviewed below:
Radiation Control and Power Systems Figure 2 shows a schematic diagram of the ICAN-II radiation and power systems.
Radiation damage to the ICAN-II vehicle can result from neutrons, which pose a threat to the stored targets, antiprotons, and the crew of the vehicle.
In order to prevent this, 1.2 meters of lithium hydride shielding ( Power Shield ) is required.
In addition, 2.2 meters of ‘shielding’ ( “Crew Shield” ) is needed to limit crew exposure to ~ 30 rem over the duration of a mission.
Finally, part of the intense blast of neutrons, from the ‘pellet ignition’, is absorbed by the Power Shield to drive a 10 MW electric generator, which provides power for the ion drivers and other systems on the spacecraft.
A liquid droplet radiator [ Fig. 3 ] has been designed for expelling the excess 60 MW of heat from the Power Shield into space.
Thrust and Isp –
Figure 4 shows the thrust and Isp for a 1 Hz firing rate. For a ∆V of 100 km/sec and an Isp of 13,500 seconds ( 200 g WLS ), 362 metric tonnes of propellant are required for a 345 metric tonne ICAN II dry mass ( see Table 1 ). With a 200 g WLS, the thrust is about 100 kN, which accelerates the outbound craft to a 25 km/sec ∆V in 3-days.
For 800 g of ejected mass, about 30 ng of antiprotons are required. Hence, ICAN-II could be fueled with a 1-year production of AntiProtons at FERMILAB, estimated by ourselves to be approximately 140 ng ‘by the year 2000’.
Energy Utilization –
It is interesting to investigate how energy from the exploding pellet is productively utilized in ICAN-II, or more generally in a fusion driven spacecraft with ablative thrusters.
The results [ Table 2 ], where 7.1 GJ ( 7.1 GW @ 1 Hz ) ‘energy is imparted to actual forward kinetic energy of the spacecraft’.
EXAMPLES OF INTERPLANETARY AND EXTRAPLANETARY MISSIONS –
Utilizing vehicle performance parameters ( presented above ) three ( 3 ) potential ICAN-II missions were analyzed.
As an intermediate-step to a full non-impulsive analysis, simulations of vehicle trajectories – within planetary gravitational spheres of influence – were performed by modeling; vehicle thrust and solar gravity – as perturbations.
The results indicate that the majority of the ∆V was gained within the planetary spheres of influence, permitting the design of interplanetary trajectories using impulsive maneuvers at the end-points.
Missions to Mars, Jupiter and Pluto were investigated, and the results are presented [ Table 3 ].
The ‘short transfer times significantly alleviate psychological and physical dangers to the crew’.
A total ∆V requirement of 120 km/s was stipulated to provide a large launch window every 2-years, although the mission can be completed with as little as 70 km/s if departure is timed correctly. Table 3.
Examples of ICAN-II Mission Capabilities –
A mission to the solar gravitational lens, 11 point, was also examined using the ICAN-II baseline design.
After a continuous engine firing of 10-days, a 120 meter diameter radio telescope would be transported to a distance of 550 AU [ Astronomical Units ] in 18-years; providing, a means of observing radio signals from the galactic center with unparallelled sensitivity and resolution.
In Figure 5 we show an analysis of detection sensitivity for weak sources with the telescope centered on the Sun.
Estimates for solar and galactic continuum noise are indicated, along with their sum.
The sensitivity is illustrated for point signal sources with a strength of 1 nanoJansky ( nJy ) at various frequencies ( 1 Jy = 10-26 W/m2–HzB ).
For reference we note that signals detected ( on Earth ) of Cygnus X-3 – by radiotelescopes – have a strength of approximated 1 Jy.
The analysis indicates that small signals, from distant sources near the center of the galaxy, would be readily detected – with spatial resolution at the center of the galaxy of about one-eighth A.U. – at frequencies above 1GHz.
PRODUCTION OF ANTIPROTONS –
Antiproton sources exist worldwide at two sources, CERN ( in Geneva, Switzerland ) and FERMILAB ( in Batavia, Illinois ).
These two ( 2 ] laboratories utilize High-Energy Proton Synchrotron Accelerators with accumulator storage rings attached to collect AntiProtons produced by collisions of Protons on targets.
Presently, FERMILAB collects 6 x 1010 AntiProtons ‘per hour’ in its Accumulator.
This means that in 1-year ( of dedicated production ) it could produce a maximum of 0.85 ng of AntiProtons.
A new and funded facility, called the “Main Injector” will turn on in 1999, with a maximum annual production capacity of 14 ng.
A new “Recycler Ring” presently under construction and located inside the Main Injector ring will increase the collection rate by another factor of 10.
This would place FERMILAB in the 100 ng range, making it attractive for ‘future space applications’.
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In the current version of the ICAN-II concept, a ‘sector’ of a ‘Spherical Silicon Carbide’ ( SiC ) shell of 4 m radius is ‘used to intercept radiation from the explosion’.
This radiation heats the inner surface of the shell to keV temperatures, and the resultant expanding plasma produces thrust.
A schematic version of the ICAN-II spacecraft, including the engine at the aft end [ Fig. 1 ]. Estimates of component masses for a 120-day ( ∆V = 100 km/s ) Mars Mission ( RT ) are given [ Table 1 ].
TRAPPING ANTIPROTONS –
Antiproton trapping work has been done at the Low-Energy AntiProton Ring ( LEAR ) at CERN [ Geneva, Switzerland ].12
LEAR [ at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland ] has provided low-energy AntiProton beams; presently, not available at FERMILAB.
The 5.9 MeV AntiProton beam is degraded down to an energy of 10-30 keV and injected into a large Penning trap.
The AntiProtons are trapped radially by the magnetic field, and axially by the two ( 2 ) confining electrostatic potentials.
The harmonic frequencies of these two motions are about 50 and 5 MHz respectively.
A third ( 3rd ) harmonic “Magnetron” motion is also present. This precession around the direction of the E _ x B_ vector is at a rate of about 80 kHz.
Measurement of the actual number of AntiProtons trapped is done by, lowering the potential of the far electrode, allowing the AntiProtons to spill out of the trap and annihilate into charged Pions.
Observed linear correlations, between the number of ‘Pion’ counts and the number of antiprotons injected into the trap, show that at least 106 Antiprotons per injection shot from LEAR [ CERN ] have been trapped.
Electron cooling then permits collection of successive shots from LEAR, for example 10 successive shots would yield 107 AntiProtons in the trap.
Electron cooling is done by injecting electrons into the trap, where by collisions, they absorb energy from the antiprotons.
This energy is released by the electrons as they spin around the magnetic field in the form of Synchrotron Radiation.
The data demonstrate lifetimes of up to several hours, corresponding to vacua of less than 10-11 Torr.
TRANSPORTING ANTIPROTONS TO SPACE –
For space propulsion applications, 140 ng of Antiprotons corresponds to about 1,017 Antiprotons.
One possible scenario, therefore, would be to transport 103 traps into space, each holding 1,014 Antiprotons.
It is likely that these 103 traps would be integrated into a common cryogenic system.
Scale-up from traps holding 107 Antiprotons to 1,014 Antiprotons will not be trivial.
Traps presently in use have a Brillouin limit of about 1,011 Antiprotons / cc therefore, a trap with a volume of 1 Liter can hold the required number of Antiprotons.
We are presently building a portable Antiproton trap [ 13 ]. It is designed to carry up-to 109 Antiprotons for 4-10 days. A schematic drawing of the trap is shown in Figure 6.
It is a prototype for a trap capable of carrying 1,014 Antiprotons for up to 120-days ( duration of a Round-Trip Mission to Mars ).
The portable trap is 1-meter tall, 30 cm across, and weighs 125 kg. It operates at 4K temperature, supported by cryogenic nitrogen and helium reservoirs, and has a unique feature that the confining magnet is made of permanently magnetic SmCo materials, which should prove to be robust.
Test results to-date are very encouraging.
Up to 40,000,000 ( million ) electrons have been trapped for 16-hours.
H2 gas ( ~ 1 µmole ) has been injected and the electron gun turned on.
Bombardment of the gas by the electrons produces various charged ion species, including small numbers of H+ ions.
The storage life-time has been measured by extraction into a channeltron detector ( Fig. 7 ).
Life-times of up to 103 seconds have been observed.
The electron and H+ life-time results are consistent with a vacuum in the inner trap of 10-10 Torr.
We are currently installing a high current H+ injector to permit storage of 106 ions.
When tests of the system operating on a stand-alone battery system are completed, a portability test of H+ ions will be made.
We estimate that vacuums presently achieved correspond to an Antiproton lifetime of 14-hours.
We foresee improvements of vacuum by a factor of 5, arriving at a 4-day storage-time in the near term.
SYNTHESIZING AND CONFINING ANTIHYDROGEN –
Instabilities set in when the charged Antiproton Coulomb energy density exceeds the magnetic ( b Penning trap ) energy densities.
Since there are practical limits to fields that can be supported, the next step is to prepare accumulations of large numbers of Antiprotons in the form of electrically neutral atoms, such as ‘atomic Antihydrogen’. Within the next 2-years these atoms will be synthesized at CERN by injecting “Positronium” atoms, bound electron-positron pairs, into a ‘trap’ [ also known as, a: ‘tank’ / ‘cavity’ ] filled with AntiProtons.
Initially, we hope to form and confine thousands of Antihydrogen atoms in a Pritchard – Loffe trap, consisting of a vacuum cylinder within a quadrupole magnet, augmented with confining pinch coils at each end.
Confinement is provided by the interaction of the atomic magnetic moment with the inhomogeneous magnetic field.
This technology is currently available from laboratories studying atomic hydrogen where densities of > 1,014 atoms / cc have been achieved.
Although these densities are much higher than allowed by Penning traps, instabilities exist which prohibit their use at high densities for long term accumulation.
The next step, therefore, involves forming ‘condensates of electrically neutral molecular Antihydrogen’, either in liquid or solid form, which would provide densities approaching 1,023 atoms/cc; 140 ng of AntiHydrogen would constitute a spherical volume of about 60 micrometers radius.
Confinement of Antimatter has been the subject of extensive studies.14
Since liquid or solid Antihydrogen is diamagnetic, levitation within a confining vessel could be provided by a magnet of modest size.15
Serious technical issues include annihilation of surface atoms with residual gas in the confining vessel, and sublimation of surface atoms with resultant annihilation on the walls of the confining vessel.
In the latter case, the annihilation could eject matter from the walls, which in turn annihilates with the Antihydrogen, starting a chain reaction.
This work was supported, in-part, by:
– Jet Propulsion Laboratory ( NASA );
– Marshall Space Flight Center ( NASA );
– NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ( NSF ) Research for Undergraduates ( REU.) Program; and,
– BOEING CORPORATION, ROCKETDYNE DIVISION.
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… More including diagrams and photos …
Research Reference –
R.E. Peterkin Jr. and J.H. Degnan, “Scientific Demonstration of AntiProton – catalyzed Microfission/fusion Concepts for Space Propulsion Beyond the Moon: Why the Road to the Stars Begins in the Laboratory,” in Proc. 8th Annual Symposium on Space Propulsion, Penn State University, University Park, PA, 1996, p. 91.
R.A. Lewis, Gerald A. Smith and Steven D. Howe, Hyperf. Inter. 109, 155 ( 1997 ).
Research Reference –