by, Paul Collin

LOS ANGELES – February 28, 2020 – There are currently seven ( 7 ) CoronaViruses able to infect human beings as described in 2018, 2019 and 2020 ( See Below ).

As I identified during early February – within my LinkedIn.Com instant post feeds – “bats” were then suspected as being the point of origin for the CoronaVirus, however, according to the following information ( below ) it appears “rodents” were suspect too.

Further information is additionally revealed ( below ).

– –

Circa: 2020

The following speaks of seven ( 7 ) different types of CoronaViruses ( below ):

SOURCE: Pirbright Institute ( Surrey, UK )

January 24, 2020 –

The Pirbright Institute is aware that misinformation, regarding the Institute and its research, is circulating on ‘social media’; following, an outbreak of a new ( novel ) CoronaVirus [ novel CoronaVirus 2019 / 2019-nCoV / COVID-19 ] that infects humans in Wuhan, China.

These [ below ] are the facts regarding ‘our CoronaVirus research and funding’:

The Pirbright Institute carries out research on Infectious Bronchitis Virus ( IBV ), a CoronaVirus that ‘infects poultry’, plus Porcine DeltaCoronaVirus that ‘infects pigs’.

Pirbright does not currently work with human CoronaViruses. 

… [ EDITED-OUT FOR BREVITY ] …

This CoronaVirus [ novel CoronaVirus 2019 / 2019-nCoV / COVID-19 ] – first [ 1st ] identified ( earlier this year ) in Wuhan, China – is a new CoronaVirus and is ‘the seventh [ 7th ] CoronaVirus identified to infect humans’.

The ‘six [ 6 ] other CoronaViruses are capable of infecting humans’ causing mild to severe diseases, including:

– Common Cold;

– Severe Acute Respiratory Ayndrome ( SARS ); and,

– Middle East Respiratory Syndrome ( MERS ).

The exact origin of the new [ novel CoronaVirus 2019 / 2019-nCoV / COVID-19 ] virus is unknown however, initial confirmation shared by China and the World Health Organization ( WHO ) indicates this new virus is ‘genetically similar to a SARS like CoronaVirus’ found in ‘bats’.

The source of the outbreak has yet to be confirmed and investigations are ongoing.

The Pirbright Institute collaborates with scientific institutes and universities around the world to prevent and control livestock diseases and those that can spread from livestock to people, known as ‘zoonoses’ [ Zoonotic ].

More …

… [ EDITED-OUT FOR BREVITY ] …

REFERENCE –

www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2020/01/pirbrights-livestock-coronavirus-research--your-questions-answered

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Circa: 2019

The following speaks of six ( 6 ) types of CoronaViruses ( below ):

CoronaViruses As The Cause Of Respiratory Infections

Abstract –

BACKGROUND

There are six [ 6 ] human pathogenic CoronaViruses ( CoV ), which mainly cause infections of the respiratory system.

In everyday clinical practice, it is helpful to know the relevance and characteristics of these pathogens.

OBJECTIVE

To present the epidemiology, clinical picture and differences of human pathogenic CoV and to provide information on the diagnostics and treatment of patients suspected of having CoV infections.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Selective literature search, presentation of results and discussion of fundamental works and expert recommendations, including publications by the World Health Organization ( WHO ), the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control ( ECDC ) and the Robert Koch Institute.

RESULTS

The four [ 4 ] endemic human CoVs ( i.e. HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 ) mainly cause mild respiratory tract infections.

In addition to the aforementioned four [ 4 ] endemic HCoVs, are two [ 2 ] ‘epidemic’ CoVs:

– Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ( SARS ) – CoV; and,

– Middle East Respiratory Syndrome ( MERS ) – CoV can cause severe pneumonia.

SARS – CoV has ‘not been detected in humans in the last 15-years’; and,

MERS – CoV has since 2012 been circulating mainly on the Arabian Peninsula.

Neither SARS or MERS CoronaViruses have any specific treatment or approved vaccines for any of these six [ 6 ] human pathogenic CoVs.

CONCLUSION

All six [ 6 ] human CoVs can be diagnosed using RT-PCR on respiratory specimens however, this is rarely necessary for the four [ 4 ] ‘endemic’ strains.

In current clinical practice SARS – CoV has no importance as it has not been detected in humans for 15-years however, a possible MERS – CoV infection should be taken into account in patients with typical symptoms and travel history to endemic regions.

In this case, rapid diagnostic and general hygiene practices are important to prevent further transmission.

REFERENCE –

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/31455974/?i=5&from=/29551135/related

– –

Circa: 2018

The following speaks of six ( 6 ) types of CoronaViruses ( below ):

SOURCE: Science Direct, Advances in Virus Research ( Volume 100, 2018, Pages 163 – 188 ), Chapter Eight – Hosts and Sources of Endemic Human Coronaviruses:

Abstract –

The four [ 4 ] endemic human coronaviruses HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-HKU1 contribute a considerable share of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in adults and children.

While their clinical representation resembles that of many other agents of the common cold, their evolutionary histories, and host associations could provide important insights into the natural history of past human pandemics.

For two [ 2 ] of these viruses, we have strong evidence suggesting an origin in major livestock species while primordial associations for all four [ 4 ] viruses may have existed with ‘bats’ and ‘rodents’.

HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E may originate from ‘bat reservoirs’ as assumed for many other CoronaViruses however, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 seem more likely to have speciated from rodent associated viruses.

HCoV-OC43 is thought to have emerged from ancestors in domestic animals such as cattle or swine. The bovine CoronaVirus has been suggested to be a possible ancestor, from which HCoV-OC43 may have emerged in the context of a Pandemic recorded historically at the end of the 19th century.

New data suggest that HCoV-229E may actually be transferred from dromedary camels similar to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome ( MERS ) CoronaVirus.

This scenario provides important ecological parallels to the present Pre-Pandemic pattern of host associations of the MERS CoronaVirus.

REFERENCES –

SOURCE: Science Direct, Advances in Virus Research ( Volume 100, 2018, Pages 163 – 188 ), Chapter Eight – Hosts and Sources of Endemic Human Coronaviruses:

AND,

www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065352718300010?via%3Dihub

AND,

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/29551135/?i=5&from=/15650185/related

– – – –

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Paul Collin, The UPI Guy at Project Camelot

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