by, Paul Collin
U.S.A., Virginia,: Tysons Corner – January 13, 2011 – What business continually builds its inventory, no matter what happens anywhere in the world, and never stops building it?
While some may fear big brother, others are financially profiting from carefully researching otherwise unknown private sector business investment portfolios strategically partnered with government intelligence agencies.
Quantum Cryptography –
Expect quantum cryptography to become known in the future as the first practical application for “Quantum Communications.”
Quantum cryptography is a form of cryptography exploiting quantum theory, in-particular with uncertainty principle stating it is impossible to measure all aspects of an object with absolute certainty.
Im 1984, Charles H. Bennett ( fellow at IBM THOMAS J. WATSON RESEARCH CENTER ) and Gilles Brassard ( researcher at the University of Montreal, Canada ) first devised quantum cryptography as part of their study of relationships between physics and information.
They were not searching for a new cryptographic method but applying basic principles of quantum mechanics to real world uses and discovered quantum mechanics ideally suited for cryptography because of photons one-wayness.
In 1989, Charles H. Bennett and IBM colleagues built the first working quantum cryptographic prototypes sending photons a distance of 30 centimeters through the air of a laboratory.
Many authorities predicted at least 25-years would pass before any form of quantum cryptography would have practical utility, however at least three ( 3 ) manufacturers now have ‘quantum cryptography products on the market’ and developing more technology such as ‘range’ plus more in the future.
Some of the latest cryptologic technologies are still subject to continuing scientific investigation or are already in research and development stages, although early commercial products exist where standards are under development for some new technologies.
In the increasingly competitive Information Age – where the Internet spreads knowledge rapidly – protecting U.S. next-generation weapon systems, empirical SE&I, M&S applications, and intellectual property sees technical data became critical.
Cryptologic scientific investigations and developing technologies are closely related to those in the area of information technology ( IT ) because information security modules, components, and systems must be tightly integrated with – if not an integral component or module of – basic information processing hardware and software architecture where many applications now incorporate high-performance features and metaprocessing techniques shortening cryptanalytic time required for an exhaustive key search.
Zero-Knowledge Proofs ( ZNP ) –
Zero-knowledge proofs ( ZNP ) are methods for proving knowledge of a secret without revealing any information about the secret.
1. Prove knowledge of a secret without revealing any knowledge of the secret; 92
2. Prove identification;
3. Provide verification;
4. Reproducible results that significantly enhance or degrade current U.S. military zero-knowledge proof schemes; and,
5. Significantly enhance or degraded existing cryptographic capabilities for U.S. government ( USG ) Class A and Class B cryptographic systems.
Critical Materials: None identified.
Unique Test, Production, Inspection Equipment: None identified.
Major Commercial Applications –
ZNP characteristic of anonymity is an important part of some concepts for e-commerce transactions.
For example, proof of certain generic authority or credit ‘credentials’ might be provided for e-commerce without revealing identity by using ZNP systems.
E-commerce transactions that protect privacy.
Like all requirements for security on the Internet, the threats from independent hackers and from nation states, rogue states, terrorists, and international criminals drive this technology.
Affordability Issues: Not an issue at this time.
ZNP allows a prover to demonstrate knowledge ( of a secret ) while revealing no information ( whatsoever of use to the verifier ) in conveying this demonstration of knowledge beyond what the verifier was able to deduce before the protocol run.
Only a single bit of information has to be conveyed, namely:
That the prover actually does know the secret.
ZNP protocols provide trusted authentication mechanisms and anonymity.
For example, one could prove U.S. citizenship without providing any other specific information such as name, address, sex, or exact age.
A protocol that is a proof of knowledge has the zero-knowledge property if it can be simulated in the following sense:
There exists an expected polynomial-time algorithm ( simulator ) which can produce – upon input of the assertion(s) to be proven but without interacting with the real prover – transcripts indistinguishable from those resulting from interaction with the real prover.
The zero-knowledge property implies that a prover – executing the protocol, even when interacting with a malicious verifier – does not release any information about its ( prover’s ) secret knowledge other than the particular assertion itself is true, not otherwise computable in polynomial time from public information alone.
Thus, participation does not increase the chances of subsequent impersonation.
A protocol is computationally zero-knowledge if an observer – restricted to probabilistic polynomial time tests – cannot distinguish real from simulated transcripts.
For perfect zero-knowledge, the probability distributions ( of the transcripts ) must be identical.
Zero-knowledge means computational zero-knowledge, when not qualified by further convention.
In the case of computational zero-knowledge, real and simulated transcripts are said to be polynomially indistinguishable ( indistinguishable using polynomial-time algorithms ).
Any information extracted by a verifier – through interaction with a prover – provides no advantage to the verifier within polynomial time.
Interesting work has been done in statistical zero-knowledge work performed by Jan Camenisch and Markus Michels exemplifying ‘statistical zero-knowledge protocols to prove statements’ saw these three ( 3 ) protocols:
– A committed number is a prime;
– A committed ( or revealed ) number is the product of two ( 2 ) safe primes, i.e. primes p and q such that (p-1)/2 and (q-1)/2 are prime; and,
– A given integer has large multiplicative order modulo, a composite number consisting of two ( 2 ) safe prime factors.
Main building blocks of aforementioned protocols are statistical zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge that are of independent interest where there has been proof of the correct computation of a modular addition, a modular multiplication, and a modular exponentiation whereby all values – including the modulus – are committed-to but not publicly known. Apart from the validity of the equations, no other information about the modulus ( e.g., a generator whose order equals the modulus ) or any other operand is exposed.
These techniques can be generalized to prove that any multi-variate modular polynomial equation is satisfied where only commitments to the variables of the polynomial – and to the modulus – need be known. Thus improving previous results where the modulus is publicly known.
Digital Data Steganography –
Steganography is that branch of cryptology that attempts to obscure the existence of data through the use of subliminal channels.
Cleartext or encrypted information can be randomly embedded in the quantization noise of ‘digital images’ or other ‘imprecise digital data files, without noticeably increasing the size of the host file.
Image steganography can be used to conceal an encrypted message.
Technique by ‘combining image steganography and encryption or multiple-encryption could present a challenge to National Security and law enforcement agency cryptanalysts whereby ‘even if a message were known to exist in an electronic image’, the ‘message bits’ would have to be ‘identified’ and ‘isolated’ in cryptanalysis processing that could make ‘plain text recovery incredibly time consuming’ – if not ‘impracticable’. Steganography, in various forms, are ‘not strictly digital image steganography’.
Banks make use of a code-word execution technique when they need to send highly secure “action” messages to execute preplanned actions. Predetermined and mutually agreed actions are then set in motion, with instructions implicit in one short phrase embedded in routine banking message traffic.
Key critical to profiting from private intelligence investments in private sector arenas is to aquire even better predictives than what intelligence agencies currently understand future necessities will be.
Predictives, in brief formats presented to government directorates, are typically derived from a broad ‘studies and analysis collective’.
Predictives are rarely derived from only one ( 1 ) individual – save for leadership occassional fortune tellers – because few fluidly exercise simultaneous abilities quickly, i.e. identifying target specific information, limitedly broadening core targets outward to key multiple arenas requiring in-depth research and then analyzing all combinatorically with trend based progressive direction. Finding someone who can do all this, albeit step-by-step, could possibly benefit some leadership while even wiser leadership might add ‘socio-economic analysis’ in that mix to more effectively buffet any social unrest outcomes.
While considering one ( 1 ) individual doing it all, the word ‘impossible’ may initially come to mind, however that may not necessarily be true. Even ‘without mind reading’ or Mensa abilities, one ( 1 ) key to sucessfully profiting from investing in private sector businesses – tied to emerging government intelligence agency venture capital investments – may only require special skill sets in researching and analyzing what already slipped past intelligence information technology ( IT ) software protocols or think-tank collectives that would have otherwise already hammered-out an intelligence business investment shelf-ready decision awaiting a key trigger for implementation.
The first and easiest task to perform is becoming knowledgeable in historical intelligence business investments and where new knowledge will precisely profit in the not too distant future – thereby beating lumbering bears, busy bees and pesky flies – to ‘their honey’.
Profiting from those inept is not unlawful – at least not ‘yet’ – and so long as the insatiable sweet tooth of bears and bees can have the ‘majority of their honey’ they ‘might not mind sharing a little new honey’ shown them. Then again, ‘maybe not’.
For some, what is involved may only be tantamount to collecting a finder’s fee for doing some treasure hunting, however one must know how and where to look for some ‘old technology’ lost in yesterday’s bureaucratic confusion.
To place a bet, on a private business or the stock market, one needs to research more carefully than others – never underestimating machine-to-machine communications ( M2M ) either.
The following initial report ( below ) is only but a related research exercise that may prepare financial freedom futures.
– – – –
Circa: 2002 – 2008
IN-Q-TEL INCORPORATED (aka)
2500 Sand Hill Road – Suite 113
Menlo Park, California 94025 – 7061
TEL: +1 (650) 234-8999
TEL: +1 (650) 234-8983
FAX: +1 (650) 234-8997
IN-Q-TEL INCORPORATED (aka)
P.O. Box 12407
Arlington, Virginia 22219
TEL: +1 (703) 248-3000
FAX: +1 (703) 248-3001
IN-Q-TEL focus areas, surround:
– Physical Technologies;
– Biological Technologies;
– Security; and,
– Software Infrastructure.
Strategic Investments, Targeted Returns
In-Q-Tel is ‘building’ a ‘portfolio of companies’ that are ‘developing innovative solutions’ in ‘key technology areas’
Similar to many ‘corporate strategic venture’ firms, In-Q-Tel seeks to ‘optimize potential returns’ for our clients — the CIA and the broader Intelligence Community— by investing in companies of strategic interest.
In-Q-Tel engages ‘start-ups’, ‘emerging’ and ‘established’ companies, universities and research labs.
In-Q-Tel structure attractive win-win relationships through ‘equity investments’, as well ‘strategic product development funding’, and ‘innovative intellectual property arrangements’ and ‘government business development guidance’.
An Enterprising Partner –
In-Q-Tel ‘portfolio companies’ value a ‘strategic relationship’ with a ‘proactive partner’.
Companies, that work through In-Q-Tel due diligence process, know their technologies have the potential to address the needs of one of the most discriminating enterprise customers in the world.
In-Q-Tel takes a hands-on approach, working closely with our ‘portfolio companies’ to help ‘drive their success’ in the ‘marketplace’ and to ‘mature [ ‘grow’ ] their technologies’.
In-Q-Tel ‘investment goals’ are focused on ‘return’ on technology – a ‘blend of factors’ that will ‘deliver strategic impact’ on the Agency [ CIA ] mission:
– Effective ‘deployments’ of innovative technologies to the CIA;
– Commercially successful ‘companies that can continue’ to ‘deliver’ and ‘support’ innovate technologies; and,
– Financial ‘returns to fund further technology investments’ to ‘benefit the Intelligence Community’.
Investing In Our National Security –
In just a few short years, In-Q-Tel has ‘evaluated’ nearly two thousand [ 2,000 ] ‘proposals’:
75% [ 1,500 ] of which have come from companies that had never previously considered working with the government.
To date, In-Q-Tel ‘established strategic relationships’ with more than ‘twenty’ ( 20 ) of these ‘companies’.
Read more about our ‘portfolio companies’ and ‘technology partners’, or learn how to submit a business plan to In-Q-Tel.
Areas Of Focus –
IN-Q-TEL focuses on next generation technologies for gathering, analyzing, managing and disseminating data. Learn more about our areas of focus:
Knowledge Management: [ web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/tech/km.html ];
Security and Privacy: [ web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/tech/sp.html ];
Search and Discovery: [ web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/tech/sd.html ];
Distributed Data Collection: [ web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/tech/dd.html ]; and,
Geospatial Information Services: [ web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/tech/gi.html ].
Submit A Business Plan –
“In-Q-Tel also has garnered a reputation in the tech and VC [ Venture Capital ] worlds for being hard-nosed during due diligence. Unlike some venture firms, In-Q-Tel is staffed with hard-core techies who know how to put a program through the ringer. They’ve also got one of the roughest testing domains: the computer systems of the CIA.” – Washington Business Journal ( November 19, 2001 )
– View our criteria [ web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/submit/index.html ] for submission, and apply for consideration online.
Media Resources –
– Investment Portfolio: [ web.archive.org/web/20020630223724/http://www.inqtel.com/news/attachments/InQTelInvestmentPortfolio.pdf ].
– – – –
Technology Partners ( 2002 ) –
INKTOMI [ www.inktomi.com ] ( Leading Edge Search and Retrieval Technology )
INKTOMI, based in Foster City, California ( USA ), has offices elsewhere in North America, Asia and Europe.
INKTOMI division business, involves:
Network Products – comprised of industry leading solutions for network caching, content distribution, media broadcasting, and wireless technologies; and,
Search Solutions – comprised of general Web search and related services, and ‘enterprise’ search.
Inktomi ‘develops’ and ‘markets’ network infrastructure software essential for ‘service providers’ and ‘global enterprises’.
Inktomi ‘customer’ and ‘strategic partner’ base of leading companies, include:
AMERICA ONLINE ( AOL ); and,
SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) Lead System Integrator ( LSI ) – SAIC LSI [ www.saic.com/contractcenter/ites-2s/clients.html ]
SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ), founded in 1969 by Dr. J. R. Beyster who remained with SAIC for 30-years until at least November 3, 2003, has had as part of its management, and on its Board of Directors, many well known former U.S. government personnel, including:
– Melvin Laird, Secretary of Defense in the Richard Milhouse Nixon Presidential Administration;
– William Perry, Secretary of Defense in the William Jefferson Clinton Presidential Administration;
– John M. Deutch, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) Director of Central Intelligence ( DCI ) in the William Jefferson Clinton Presidential Administration;
– U.S. Navy Admiral Bobby Ray Inman, U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA ) and U.S. Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) – various employed capacities in ‘both’ Agencies – in the Gerald Ford Presidential Administration, Billy Carter Presidential Administration and Ronald Reagan Presidential Administration;
– David Kay, who led the search for Weapons of Mass Destruction ( WMD ) – following the 1991 U.S. Persian Gulf War – for the United Nations ( UN ) and in the George W. Bush Sr. Presidential Administration following the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq.
In 2009, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) moved corporate headquarters to Tysons Corner at 1710 SAIC Drive, McLean, Virginia ( USA ).
SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) is a scientific, engineering and technology ‘applications company’ with numerous ‘state government clients’, ‘federal government clients’, and ‘private sector clients’.
SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) works extensively, with:
U.S. Department of Defense ( DOD );
U.S. Department of Homeland Security ( DHS );
U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA );
U.S. intelligence community ( others );
U.S. government civil agencies; and,
Selected commercial markets.
SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) Subsidiaries –
SAIC VENTURE CAPITAL CORPORATION;
SCICOM TECHNOLOGIES NOIDA ( INDIA );
BD SYSTEMS ( BDS );
BECHTEL SAIC COMPANY LLC;
BECK DISASTER RECOVERY ( BDR );
EAGAN MCALLISTER ASSOCIATES INC.;
HICKS & ASSOCIATES
NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE ( NCI );
SAIC INTERNATIONAL SUBSIDIARIES;
SAIC LIMITED ( UK );
CALANAIS ( SCOTLAND );
APPLIED MARINE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION;
EAI CORPORATION; and,
In 1991, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) received transference of the U.S. Department of Defense ( DOJ ), U.S. Army ( USA ), Defense Intelligence Agency ( DIA ) ‘Remote Viewing Program’ renamed STARGATE Project.
In January 1999, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) consultant Steven Hatfill saw SAIC vice president Joseph Soukup internally ( with no outside client ) commission ( with no outside client ) William C. Patrick – a retired leading figure in the legacy U.S. bioweapons program – see a report produced ( 28-pages on Feburary 1999 ) on terrorist anthrax attack possibilities via Unitd States postal mailings prior to 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States.
In March 2001, the U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA ) had SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) in ‘concept definition’ phase for what later became known as the NSA TRAILBLAZER Project, a “Digital Network Intelligence” system intended to ‘analyze data’ carried across computer ‘networks’.
In 2002, the U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA ) chose SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) to produce a ‘technology demonstration platform’ for the NSA TRAILBLAZER Project, a contract worth $280,000,000 million ( USD ).
TRAILBLAZER Project participants, included:
COMPUTER SCIENCES CORPORATION ( CSC ); and,
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON.
In 2005, TRAILBLAZER – believed by speculators ( www.PhysOrg.Com et. al. ) to be a continuation of an earlier data mining project THINTHREAD program – saw U.S. National Security Agency ( NSA ) Director Michael Hayden inform a U.S. Senate hearing that the TRAILBLAZER program required several hundred million dollars over budget – consequently trailing years behind schedule waiting for approvals.
From 2001 through 2005, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) was primary contractor for the $600,000,000 million ( USD ) TRILOGY Program, a three ( 3 ) part program – intended to replace obsolete FBI computers with a then-new state-of-the-art cutting edge technology ‘secure high-speed computer network system’ that would install 500 computer network servers, 1600 scanners and thousands of desktop computers in FBI field offices – that on December 2003 delivered to the U.S. Department of Justice ( DOJ ) Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI ) its SAIC “Virtual Case File” ( VCF ), a $170,000,000 million ( USD ) software system designed to speed tracking of terrorists, better accurize communications amongst agents fighting criminals with this FBI ‘critical case management system’, however nineteen ( 19 ) different government managers involved 36 contract modifications averaging 1.3 FBI changes everyday totaling 399 changes during 15-months afterwhich the FBI continued arguing ( through its own intermediary, AEROSPACE CORPORATION ) changes until the U.S. Department of Justice ( DOJ ) Inspector General ( IG ) criticized its ‘FBI handling’ of SAIC software, whereon February 2005 SAIC ‘recommended’ the FBI at-least ‘begin using’ the SAIC TRILOGY VCF ‘case management system’.
On September 27, 2006 during a special meeting of SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) stockholders, employee-owners voted by a margin of 86% to proceed with the initial public offering ( IPO ) whereupon completion SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) also paid – to existing stockholders – a ‘special dividend’ of $1,600,000,000 billion to $2,400,000,000 billion ( USD ).
On October 17, 2006 SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) conducted an initial public offering ( IPO ) of common stock offering of 86,250,000 shares priced at $15.00 per share. Underwriters – BEAR STEARNS and MORGAN STANLEY – exercised over-allotment options resulting in 11,025,000 million shares seeing the IPO raise $1,245,000,000 billion ( USD ).
SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ( SAIC ) had approximately 46,000 total employees, 16,000 employees were in McLean, Virginia ( USA ) and another 5,000 employees were in San Diego, California ( USA ).
SRA INTERNATIONAL INC. ( SRA ) [ www.sra.com/about-us/profile.php ]
SRA INTERNATIONAL INC., founded in 1978, headquartered in Fairfax, Virginia has additional U.S. offices.
SRA INTERNATIONAL INC. is a leading provider of information technology services and solutions to clients in national security, health care and public health, and civil government markets, requiring:
– Strategic Consulting;
– Systems Design, Development, and Integration;
– OutSourcing; and,
– Operations Management.
SRA INTERNATIONAL INC. also delivers business solutions, for:
– Text mining;
– Data mining;
– Disaster and Contingency Response Planning;
– Information Sssurance;
– Environmental Strategies
– Environmental Technology;
– Enterprise Systems Management; and,
– Wireless Integration.
SRA INTERNATIONAL INC. ORIONMagic ®
Portfolio Of Companies ( 2002 ) – Partial List
ARCSIGHT [ www.arcsight.com ] ( Security Management Software for The Enterprise )
ArcSight, founded in May 2000, is located in the heart of Silicon Valley, California ( USA ).
ArcSight is a leading supplier of enterprise software that provides the security “air traffic control system” for large, geographically dispersed organizations.
These organizations are augmenting their network infrastructure with a wide variety of security devices such as firewalls, intrusion detection and identity management systems that produce a barrage of uncoordinated alarms and alerts that overwhelm the security staff.
With its ‘centralized view’ of ‘all security activity’ combined with ‘real time analysis’ of ‘events’, by both ‘operating at the perimeter and inside’ the organization, ArcSight provides a ‘single solution’, for:
Real time correlation;
Incident investigation; and,
ArcSight ‘separates’, the ‘true threats and attacks’ from the ‘millions of false alarms and non-threatening activities’ that occur each day, focusing attention and resources on high-priority problems.
The company has delivered enterprise, ‘security management solutions’ to leading ‘financial services’, ‘government’ and ‘manufacturing’ organizations while ‘attracting capital’ from ‘leading investors’, such as:
KLEINER PERKINS CAUFIELD & BYERS ( KPCB ); and,
ATTENSITY CORPORATION [ www.attensity.com ] ( Text Extraction for Threat Detection )
Attensity Corp., founded in 2000, is a privately held company with dual headquarters in Mountain View, California ( USA ) and Salt Lake City, Utah ( USA ).
Attensity Corp. provides enterprise, ‘analytic software’ and ‘services’, to:
Government agencies; and,
Fortune 500 companies.
Attensity has developed breakthrough text extraction technology that transforms information captured in free form text into structured, relational data.
Attensity enables government agencies to dramatically expand their analytical capabilities in the area of ‘threat detection’ by, powering:
Other advanced analytics; and,
Knowledge management applications.
Attensity technology is the culmination of nearly a decade [ 10-years ] of research in computational linguistics.
Attensity Corporation customers include:
IN-Q-TEL, a strategic venture group funded by the CIA;
ATTENSITY CORPORATION investor, is:
BROWSE3D [ www.browse3d.com ] ( Advanced Web Navigation )
BROWSE3D, founded in 2000, is located in the Dulles Technology Corridor of northern Virgina.
The company’s first Knowledge Management product, the Browse3D Browser, enables Internet users to browse Web sites using a dynamic, interactive, 3 dimensional ( 3-D ) display environment.
One year later [ 2001 ] the Browse3D Browser was recognized as the Best Internet Software of 2001 at the COMDEX Fall Technology Show ( Las Vegas, Nevada, USA ).
Browse3D launched its ‘consumer product’ in January 2002.
For the past 2-years [ since 2000 ], Browse3D has been working to re-invent the online researcher’s tool set. A researcher’s ability to ‘harvest relevant online data’ is often limited by the tools available to view that data.
Future products and technologies promise additional improvements in the way users ‘find’, ‘organize’, ‘save’ and ‘exchange’ web-based ‘content’.
BROWSE3D early-stage venture funding provided, by:
CANDERA INC. [ www.candera.com ] ( Enterprise Storage )
Candera Incorporated, founded in 2000, is a development stage stealth mode company headquartered in Milpitas, California ( USA ).
Candera Inc. is developing a new generation, purpose built, network based storage management platform that gives businesses unprecedented ‘control over’ and ‘visibility into’ their networked storage environments.
With the Candera Confluence solution, businesses can dramatically improve the utilization of their existing heterogeneous storage assets by consolidating them into a centrally managed storage pool. These can then be quickly and dynamically allocated to meet the needs of current and future network based applications, giving large enterprises a strategic advantage.
Candera is building the first [ 1st ] system, of a new generation of systems, that will enable customers to unleash the ultimate value of networked information storage.
CONVERA [ www.convera.com ] ( Mission Critical Enterprise Search and Categorization Software )
Convera RetrievalWare is a high-performance intelligent search system that allows broad flexibility and scalability for implementation across corporate intranets and extranets, enabling users to index and search a wide range of distributed information resources, including text files, HTML, XML, over 200 proprietary document formats, relational database tables, document management systems and groupware repositories. Convera RetrievalWare excels in distributed client environments and server environments with hundreds or thousands of users, documents, images and / or multiple media assets.
Advanced search capabilities include concept and keyword searching, pattern searching and query by example.
Convera is a leading provider of enterprise mission-critical ‘search’, ‘retrieval’ and ‘categorizing’ solutions.
More than 800 customers – in 33 countries – rely on Convera search solutions to power a broad range of mission critical applications, including enterprise:
Corporate policy compliance;
Customer service; and,
DECRU [ www.decru.com ] ( Secure Networked Storage )
Decru, founded in April 2001, is headquartered in Redwood City, California ( USA ).
Decru solves the problem of secure data storage with a robust, wire-speed encryption appliance that fits transparently into any SAN or NAS storage environment, protecting data from both internal and external threats.
Markets include essentially any organization with a need to protect proprietary or confidential information ( e.g. government, technology, financial services, health care ).
GRAVITRON [ www.graviton.com ] ( Early Warning Detection and Notification System for Homeland Security Over Wireless Mesh Networks )
GRAVITON, founded in 1999, is located in La Jolla, California, USA.
Solomon Trujillo, former head of U.S. WEST ( baby bell telephone company ), leads GRAVITRON.
GRAVITON is on leading edge of a fledgling ( small ) industry, known as:
Machine to Machine Communications ( M2M ).
GRAVITON is developing an advanced integrated wireless sensor platform uniquely optimized for large-scale distributed sensor network applications working with Micro Electro Mechanical Systems ( MEMS ) sensor and spread spectrum wireless technologies licensed exclusively to GRAVITON from the U.S. National Laboratory at Oakridge ( also known as ) Oakridge National Laboratory ( Tennessee, USA ) – managed by the U.S. Department of Energy ( DOE ).
GRAVITON products and solutions integrate wireless, sensor and data management technology enabling enterprises to efficiently and transparently monitor, control, send, receive, and update system information from devices anywhere in the world.
GRAVITON is supported and funded by a number of corporate partners and investors, including:
ROYAL DUTCH SHELL ( oil / petroleum );
GRAVITON ‘primary’ financial investors, include:
GRAVITON ‘venture capital’ firms, include:
KLEINER PERKINS CAUFIELD & BYERS ( KPCB ); and,
INTELLISEEK [ www.intelliseek.com ] ( Enterprise Intelligence Solutions )
INTELLISEEK, founded in 1997, has since 1998 been changing the way organizations ‘understand’, ‘gather’ and ‘use’ enterprise ‘intelligence’.
INTELLISEEK ‘knowledge discovery tools’ [ as of: 2002 ] enable the nation’s largest enterprises with up-to-the-minute consumer, industry information and ‘competitive intelligence’.
INTELLISEEK ‘Enterprise Search Server’™ ( ESS ) search platform provides a suite of intelligent applications that automate ‘knowledge discovery’ and ‘knowledge aggregation’ from hundreds of disparate, and often hard-to-locate data sources.
INTELLISEEK ‘Knowledge Management’ and ‘Search and Discovery’ solutions solve the fundamental problem of “information overload” by identifying and searching relevant, targeted and personalized content from the internet, intranets and extranets.
INTELLISEEK clients, include:
FORD MOTOR COMPANY ( FOMOCO );
PROCTOR AND GAMBLE.
RIVER CITIES CAPITAL;
GENERAL ATLANTIC PARTNERS LLC;
FLAT IRON PARTNERS;
BLUE CHIP VENTURE COMPANY;
NOKIA VENTURES; and,
Other private investors.
METACARTA [ www.metacarta.com ] ( Geospatial Data Fusion )
MetaCarta, established in 1999, was launched on more than $1,000,000 million in funding from the U.S. Department Of Defense ( DOD ) Defense Advanced Projects Agency ( DARPA ) and private investors.
MetaCarta CEO John Frank, with a doctorate from the Massachusets Institute Of Technology ( MIT ) where during 1999 – as a Hertz Fellow in physics working on a PhD – conceived a new way to view – geographically – ‘collections of text’ that later saw MetaCarta combine his interests in algorithms, information design, and scientific models of real world phenomena.
Metacarta provides a new knowledge management platform that integrates ‘text data with geography’ providing a ‘cohesive system’ for ‘problem solving’.
METACARTA Geographic Text Search ( GTS ) appliance, the software solution, redefines how people interact with information, enabling analysts to view text reports and geographic information in one ( 1 ) logical view through integration of text and geography delivering new information not obtainable from any other source.
MetaCarta CEO John Frank graduated from Yale University.
MOHOMINE [ www.mohomine.com ] ( Transforming Unstructured Multi-Language Data Into Actionable Information )
MOHOMINE, founded in 1999, is privately-held and located in San Diego, California, USA.
MOHOMINE technology has been deployed by United States national security organizations.
MOHOMINE mohoClassifier for National Security Organizations ™ reviews ‘text information’ in ‘cables’, ‘e-mails’, ‘system files’, ‘intranets’, ‘extranets’ and ‘internet’ providing ‘automated document classification’, ‘routing’ – based upon ‘learn-by-example pattern recognition’ technology – and ‘reports’ on user defined properties such as ‘topic’, ‘subject’, ‘tone’ ( ‘urgent’, plus others ), ‘author’, ‘source’ ( geographic locations, ‘country’, etc. ), and more.
MOHOMINE mohoClassifier users can easily set up ‘filters’ to automatically ‘identify’ and ‘prioritize’ ( ‘read first’ requirement ) documents that are quickly processed – out-of large volumes of other data – and then quickly route prioritized information to quickly reach the proper people.
MOHOMINE, from Global 5000, currently [ since 2002 ] has more than one hundred fifty ( 150 ) customers across numerous vertical industries, including:
MOHOMINE investors, include:
HAMILTON APEX TECHNOLOGY VENTURES; and,
QYNERGY CORPORATION [ www.qynergy.com ] ( Long-Lasting Power Solutions For Multiple Applications And Small-Tech )
QYNERGY CORP., founded in 2001, is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
QYNERGY technology originated at the U.S. National Laboratory at Sandia ( also known as ) Sandia National Laboratories ( New Mexico, USA ) and at the University of New Mexico ( New Mexico, USA ).
QYNERGY Corp. develops leading-edge energy solutions based on QYNERGY proprietary QynCell ™ technology that made an exciting breakthrough – over other ‘battery’ or ‘portable energy’ devices – in ‘materials science’ allowing QYNERGY to possess several unique competitive advantages.
QYNERGY QynCell ™ is an ‘electrical energy device’ revolution, providing:
Long-lived Batteries – QynCell usable life is potentially over a period of ‘several decades’ ( 10-year multiples ), during which time the QynCell device ‘does not require external charging’;
Miniature and Micro Applications – QynCell™ technology is scaleable, thus can be ‘miniaturized’, for:
Micro Electro Mechanical Systems ( MEMS );
Small microelectronics; and,
SAFEWEB [ www.safewebinc.com ] ( Secure Remote Access )
SAFEWEB, established in April 2000, is based in Emeryville, California, USA.
SAFEWEB built the world’s largest ‘online privacy network’, however in 2001 its ‘free online service’ was ‘concluded’ – to focus on developing its ‘enterprise’ product.
SAFEWEB is a leading provider of innovative security and privacy technologies that are effective, economical and simple.
SAFEWEB Secure Extranet Appliance ( SEA ), the first [ 1st ] SAFEWEB enterprise security release – reduces the cost and complexity traditionally involved in securing corporate network resources.
SAFEWEB Secure Extranet Appliance ( SEA ), named Tsunami, is a fundamental ‘redesign of extranet architecture’ integrating disparate technologies into a ‘modular plug-in network appliance’ ( SEA Tsunami).
SAFEWEB SEA Tsunami is an ‘all-in-one solution’ simplifying implementation of ‘extranets’ and ‘Virtual Private Networks’ ( VPN ) reducing Total Cost of Ownership ( TCO ) by innovative architecture letting companies build – in less than 1-hour – ‘secure extranets’ providing ‘remote stationed’ enablement of ‘employees’, ‘clients’ and ‘partners’ to access ‘internal applications’ and ‘secure data’ from anywhere using a standard internet website browser.
SAFEWEB delivers, through established strategic partnerships, customized versions of its Secure Extranet Appliance ( SEA ) Tsunami technology to U.S. intelligence [ CIA, etc. ] and communications agencies [ NSA, etc. ].
SAFEWEB investors, include:
CHILTON INVESTMENTS; and,
STRATIFY INCORPORATED [ ] ( Unstructured Data Management Software )
In 1999, PURPLE YOGI was founded by former INTEL Microcomputer Research Laboratory scientists Ramana Venkata and Ramesh Subramonian.
PURPLE YOGI, became known as STRATIFY INCORPORATED ( a privately-held company ).
In early 2001, ORACLE CORPORATION veteran and senior executive Nimish Mehta became president and chief executive officer ( CEO ).
STRATIFY INC., headquartered in Mountain View, California ( USA ), is [ 2002 ] the ‘emerging’ leader in ‘unstructured data management’ software.
STRATIFY Discovery System is a ‘complete enterprise software platform’ helping todays [ 2002 ] organizations ‘harness vast information overload’ by ‘automating the process’ of ‘organizing’, ‘classifying’ and ‘presenting’ business-critical unstructured information usually found in ‘documents’, ‘presentations’ and internet website pages.
STRATIFY Discovery System platform ‘transforms unstructured internal and external data’ into ‘immediately accessible relevant information’ automatically organizing millions of documents displayed in easy navigational hierarchy.
STRATIFY INC. clients, include:
INLUMEN and INFOSYS TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED, named in 2001 as one ( 1 ) of The Red Herring 100.
STRATIFY INC. received funding, from:
H & Q AT INDIA (also known as )
H & Q ASIA PACIFIC;
SOFTBANK VENTURE CAPITAL ( now known as )
MOBIUS VENTURE CAPITAL;
SKYBLAZE VENTURES LLC; and,
SRD [ www.srdnet.com ] ( Near Real Time Data Warehousing and Link Analysis )
SYSTEMS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ( SRD ), founded in 1983, develops software applications to combat fraud, theft, and collusion.
SYSTEMS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Non-Obvious Relationship Awareness ™ ( NORA ™ ) was originally developed for the gambling casino gaming industry
SYSTEMS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT NORA software is designed to identify correlations across vast amounts of structured data, from hundreds or thousands of data sources, in near real-time, and alert users to potentially harmful relationships between and among people.
SRD NORA software technology leverages SYSTEMS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT proven expertise in ‘aggregating’, ‘warehousing’ and ‘leveraging people data’ and ‘transaction data’ to strengthen corporate management and security systems.
SYSTEMS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT clients [ 2002 ], include:
U.S. Depaartment of Defense ( DOD );
MANDALAY BAY RESORT GROUP; and,
Food Marketing Institute.
TACIT [ www.tacit.com ] ( Enterprise Expertise Automation )
TACIT, founded in 1997, is located in Palo Alto, California ( USA ) with regional sales offices in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Illinois.
David Gilmour serves as president and chief executive officer ( CEO ).
TACIT Knowledge Systems is the pioneer and leader in ‘Enterprise Expertise Automation’.
TACIT products ‘automatically and continuously inventories’ the ‘skills’ and ‘work focus’ of an ‘entire organization’ for ‘dynamic location’ of ‘connections to expertise needed’ – when needed to make decisions, solve problems, and serve customers.
TACIT products also include its award winning flagship product KnowledgeMail™. In June 200, TACIT was voted one of the “Hot 100 Private Companies,” by Upside Magazine.
In 2000 and 2001, TACIT was one ( 1 ) of the “100 Companies that Matter,” by KM World [ Knowledge Management World ].
TACIT attracted a ‘world class advisory board’ with interest from ‘venture capital’ and Fortune 500 ‘clients’ of ‘enterprise’ and ‘customers’, including:
CHEVRON-TEXACO ( petroleum and chemical );
NORTHROP-GRUMAN ( aerospace & defense ); and,
ELI LILLY ( pharmaceuticals ).
TACIT investors, include:
DRAPER FISHER JURVETSON;
REUTERS GREENHOUSE FUND; and,
TRACTION SOFTWARE [ www.tractionsoftware.com ] ( Harvest and Use Information from All Sources )
TRACTION SOFTWARE, founded in 1996, is located in Providence, Rhode Island ( USA ).
TRACTION® Software is the leader in ‘Enterprise Weblog’ software, bringing together working ‘communications’, ‘knowledge management’, ‘content management’, ‘collaboration’, and the ‘writable intranet portal’.
TRACTION TeamPage™ product addresses the need for ‘unified on-demand view’ of ‘team content’ and ‘team communication’ from ‘all document sources’ in ‘context’ and over ‘time’.
TRACTION TeamPage deploys quickly and easily on an existing network and delivers a ‘capstone communication system’ by turning ‘e-mail’ and ‘web browser’ into powerful tools for end-users.
TeamPage targets ‘program teams’ and ‘product management teams’ in ‘government’ and ‘business’.
TRACTION also supports a wide range of applications and business processes, including but not limited, to:
Business Intelligence and Market Research;
Collection Highlighting and Media Distribution;
Investor Relations E-Mail and Public Relations E-Mail Triage and Response; and,
Tracking Exception Process and Reporting Exception Process.
TRACTION SOFTWARE investors, include:
SLATER CENTER FOR INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGY; and,
ZAPLET INCORPORATED [ www.zaplet.com ] ( Enterprise Collaboration Tools For Email )
ZAPLET INC., founded in 1999, is located in Redwood Shores, California ( USA ).
ZAPLET INC. is an enterprise software and services company and creator of the Zaplet Appmail System™ collaboration software that brings application functionality directly to a user’s inbox to complete business processes.
ZAPLET INC. Appmail, using a server-based platform, combines power, ‘centralized control’ and ‘robust security’ for traditional enterprise application systems with the convenience and ease-of-use of e-mail.
ZAPLET Appmail in-box becomes the gateway to a protected server where the application functionality and data securely reside.
Zaplet™ Appmail can be used, to:
Manage and Streamline mission-critical business processes;
Requires no additional client-side upgrades; and,
Instantly expandable for work teams ‘beyond’ the ‘enterprise’.
ZAPLET INC. has received numerous awards, including:
Red Herring 100;
Enterprise Outlook – Investors’ Choice; and,
Internet Outlook – Investors’ Choice.
ZAPLET INC. customers, include leading companies, in:
High technologies; and,
ZAPLET INC. is backed by world class investors, including:
KLEINER PERKINS CAUFIELD & BYERS ( KPCB );
ACCENTURE TECHNOLOGY VENTURES;
QUESTMARK PARTNERS L.P.;
RESEARCH IN MOTION LIMITED ( RIM );
INTEGRAL CAPITAL PARTNERS;
CISCO SYSTEMS INC.; and,
Portfolio of Companies ( 2010 ) – Partial List
CleverSafe ( SAIC )
– – – –
Now if you thought you graduated with honors magna cum laude – think again and begin reading ( below ):
QUCOMM – Long Distance Photonic Quantum Communication
An overview of the work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory ( New Mexico, USA ) on Quantum Computation and Cryptography
The idea of quantum computation and cryptography is to use the laws of quantum mechanics for either computing or exchange secrets messages.
Los Alamos is a leader in Experimental Quantum Computation [ EQC ].
The recent discovery that it was possible to use Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( NMR ) for quantum computation has made experimental work leap forward.
The 3-qubit quantum computer – using NMR techniques with the molecule trichloroethylene – is state-of-the-art at present ( winter 1998 ).
We have succeeded at creating a GHZ state.
This is the “big brother” of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen ( EPR ) state.
Using qubits with state |0> and |1>, we have created the state |000> + |111>. It is well known form the foundations of quantum mechanics.
Both the EPR and the GHZ state have properties that are non-classical. For more details see our paper NMR-GHZ [ xxx.lanl.gov/ps/quant-ph/9709025 ].
Quantum error correction is required to compensate for the fragility of the state of a quantum computer.
We report the first [ 1st ] experimental implementations of quantum error correction and confirm the expected state stabilization.
A precise study of the decay behavior is studied in alanine and a full implementation of error correction protocol is implemented in trichloroethylene.
In NMR computing, however, a net improvement in the signal-to-noise would require very high polarization.
The experiment implemented the 3-bit code for phase errors in liquid state-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( NMR ).
Quantum mechanics provides spectacular new information processing abilities.
One of the most unexpected is a procedure called ‘quantum teleportation’ – suggested by Bennet, et al. [ www.research.ibm.com/quantuminfo/teleportation ] – that allows the ‘quantum state of a system’ to be ‘transported from one location to another’ – without moving through the intervening space.
We have implemented the ‘full quantum teleportation operation’ over ‘inter-atomic distances’ using ‘liquid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)’. [ see, e.g. Electronic Transfer In Mesoscopic Systems, Quantum Kinetics, Magnetoresistance Within Magnetic Layering, Liquid State NMR, etc. (www.quantiki.org/wiki/Liquid-state_NMR ) ]
The inclusion of the final stage enables – for the first [ 1st ] time – a teleportation implementation, that may be used as a ‘subroutine’ in ‘larger quantum computations’, or for ‘quantum communication’.
Our experiment also demonstrates the use of ‘quantum process tomography’, a procedure to ‘completely characterize the dynamics of a quantum system’.
Finally, we demonstrate a controlled exploitation of decoherence as a tool to assist in the performance of an experiment.
Using quantum mechanics – instead of classical mechanics – has huge advantages but also some drawbacks; quantum mechanics make the ‘applications much more powerful’ but at the same time much more ‘fragile’ against ‘noise’.
Organization Information –
KUNGLIGA TEKNISKA HOGSKOLAN
100 44 Stockholm
CONTACT: Anders Karlsson
WWW : www.ele.kth.se/QEO/qucomm ( Project website )
Long Distance Photonic Quantum Communication (aka) LDPQC interalia the QuComm Project, will:
1. Scale secure quantum communication towards longer distances;
2. Realize novel applications; and,
3. Identify and transfer ‘spin-off applications’ to ‘industry’ [ i.e. ‘private sector’ businesses ].
The physical resources explored, are:
Entangled quantum states having no classical counterpart.
Work will be pursued on novel sources, for:
1. Direct ‘generation of entangled photon states’ in ‘electrically pumped structures’;
2. Diode-laser pumped ‘non-linear optical crystals’; and,
3. Detectors or ‘multiphoton states’.
Basic quantum information building blocks, such as teleportation and entanglement swapping, will be developed. Field demonstrations will be used to validate the technology, both at 700nm – 800nm ( free space and optical fibers ) and at 1300 nm and 1550 nm ( telecommunication fibers and systems ).
The consortium consists of both ‘universities’ and ‘industries’ [ private sector businesses ] – those with a broad ‘physics’ and ‘technology’ background.
QuComm Objectives –
1. Extend experimental quantum communication protocols – notably ‘quantum teleportation entanglement swapping’ and ‘entanglement quantum cryptography’ towards ‘longer distances’. In particular, to explore ‘physical resource of entangled states’ of ‘multiple photons’ that otherwise lack finding a counterpart in classical physics;
2. Experimentally demonstrate quantum communication protocols for cryptographic applications in point-to-point and multiparty quantum cryptography – using ‘entangled quantum states’ to ‘achieve’ an ‘increased level of security’ – compared to ‘faint-pulse quantum cryptography’;
3. Validate optical quantum communication technologies – in an ‘application context’ through various field tests of the developed concepts and technologies; and,
4. Identify and transfer ‘spin off’ results – from ‘quantum communication technologies’ – to industries [ private sector businesses ] or to industries-to-be [ ‘emerging’ technology businesses’ ], notably SMEs.
Work Description –
The work will be divided into six [ 6 ] quantum state Work Packages ( WP ) [ ‘problem sets’ ], each with designated WP [ ‘problem set’ ] ‘leaders’:
WP0, leads – ‘Management’ [ i.e. IN-Q-TEL Quantum Interface Center ( QIC ) interalia CIA ], additionally dealing with ‘dissemination’ and ‘industrial take-up’ [ private sector transfers to private sector businesses ] of results [ ‘products’ / ‘solutions’ to ‘market’ for ‘profitability’ ];
WP1, leads – ‘Sources’ [ ‘partners’ ( i.e. ‘businesses’ / ‘institutions’ ]; and,
WP2, leads – ‘Analyzers’ ( i.e. ‘detectors’ / ‘analysts’ / ‘individuals’ ) enabling ‘building block formations’ for ‘subsequent work’.
[ NOTE: Once “sources” and “analyzers” ( ‘detectors’ interalia ‘analysts’ ) are available – in some cases, during project infancy – they will be transferred to later [ “subsequent” ] quantum state Work Packages. ]
WP3, leads – Entanglement enhanced quantum cryptography – focused on ‘entangled states’ – and ‘multi-party quantum cryptography’;
WP4, leads – Teleporting entanglement; and,
WP5, leads – Protocols ( multimode and multistate ) utilizing optimized sources and analyzers for the realization of quantum communication protocols, both ‘significantly improved versions’ of ‘earlier demonstrations’, as well as ‘entirely novel protocols’. [ NOTE: In WP5, ALCATEL THALES III-V Lab ( Palaiseau Cedex, France ) will work on different schemes of ‘phase locked loop’ to ‘reduce phase noise’ of generated mmW, and will also facilitate exploitation of the ‘results’ achieved through small scale fabrication and/or ‘technology transfer’ ( www.ist-iphobac.org/partners/index.asp?id=3 ).
WP 6, leads – Field tests ‘assembled work’ – in earlier work packages ( WPs ) used – to ‘conduct trials outside the laboratory setting’.
By having a ‘separately delineated’ [ sensitive ‘compartmentalized’ information ( SCI ) ] work packages ( WP ) [ ‘problem sets’ ], it will be possible, to:
1. Assure ‘availability of test sites’;
2. Provide ‘coherence in goals’ of ‘field trials’; and,
3. Provide ‘joint experience’ for ‘realization of trials’.
The ‘management’ of the consortium [ www.ist-iphobac.org/login.asp ] will be with a ‘management committee’:
1. One [ 1 ] person from each ‘partner’ ( same person as the WP leader, in most cases ); and,
2. One [ 1 ] person from the ‘associated partner’.
The progress of work will be monitored through ‘bi-monthly management reports’ assembled by the WP leader and sent to the ‘coordinator’ [ ? ].
The consortium will meet every 6-months, to:
1. Highlight scientific work;
2. Discuss progress; and,
3. Discuss modifications to the project.
A small ‘industrial advisory committee’, will:
1. Monitor progress of the project; and,
2. Advise and assist in ‘transferring’ – industrial relevant – ‘results’.
The project will ‘disseminate results’, through:
1. Channels Established;
2. Industrial Advisors; and,
3. Community Others [ ‘select attendees’ of organized ‘joint meetings’ and ‘workshops’ ].
QuComm Member List –
Number | Name | Short name | Country
P01 Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan [ www.ele.kth.se/QEO/ ] KTH S [ Sweden ]
P02 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München [ scotty.quantum.physik.uni-muenchen.de/ ] LMU G [ Munich, Germany ]
P03 Institut Experimentalphysik der Universität Wien [ www.quantum.univie.ac.at/ ] EXPENIVIE A [ Vienna, Austria ]
P04 University of Oxford [ www.qubit.org/ ] Oxford UK [ United Kingdom ]
P05 University of Geneva, Group of Applied Physics [ www.gapoptique.unige.ch/ ] GAP CH [ Switzerland ]
P06 Los Alamos National Laboratory [ qso.lanl.gov/qc/ ] LANL US
P07 THOMSON-HOUSTON ( THALES ) LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DE RECHERCHES ( LCR ) [ www.thalesgroup.com/Press_Releases/Descartes_prize_awarded_to_a_European_project_invo/ ] THLCR F [ Domaine de Corbeville, 91400 Orsay, Cedex, FRANCE ] [ NOTE: Second ( 2nd ) largest participant in the UK defense industry. On December 6, 2000 was eventually renamed THALES OPTRONIQUE S.A. ( Elancourt, France ), an electronics company delivering information systems and services for aerospace, defense, and security markets. THALES GROUP is partially state-owned ( France ), operates in more than 50 countries, has 68,000 employees, generated €12.9 billion in 2009 revenues, ranked 485th world’s largest company by Fortune 500 Global, is the 9th largest defense contractor in the world, and sees military sales that are 63% of THALES GROUP total sales. ]
P08 Defence Evaluation and Research Agency [ www.dera.gov.uk/html/electronics/single_photon_optics_and_quantum_cryptography.htm ] DERA UK
University of Geneva, Department of Physics [ mpej.unige.ch/physics.html ] ( Geneva, Switzerland )
University of Geneva [ www.unige.ch ] ( Geneva, Switzerland )
QRandom is a physical random number generator ( RNG ) based on the intrinsic randomness of quantum mechanics. The random process used is the choice of a photon between the two outputs of a beam-splitter.
The generator is easy to use ( USB plug’n play support and self-powered ) and sufficiently fast for cryptographic applications (100 kHz of raw bits rate ).
The generated files can be processed by the program RNG Tester. This program allows to acquire, to apply an unbiasing procedure and to test files of random bits.
BT Quantum Optics Group:
We live in a quantum world – something physicists have considered with amazement for more than seventy years. It is only now that we realize that quantum physics is more than a radical departure from classical physics. It also offers many new possibilities for information processing.
In particular, quantum theory is non-local: it predicts entanglement between distant systems leading to correlations that cannot be explained by any theory based only on local variables, as demonstrated by Bell inequality.
All experiments are in remarkable agreement with quantum theory. Hence, the physics community faces a very strange worldview: in theory, everything is entangled, but, in practice, decoherence makes it impossible to reveal this entanglement. In addition to its “experimental metaphysics” aspects, quantum entanglement has recently gained much interest and respect because it is at the heart of quantum information processing.
The general idea is that entanglement provides means to carry out tasks that are either impossible classically ( like quantum cryptography ) or that would require significantly more steps to perform on a classical computer ( like factorization ).
However, how robust is quantum entanglement?
How long can one maintain it under control? Over which distances?
Can one really exploit it?
It is worth to emphasize this psychological revolution: for decades entanglement was considered as a source for quantum paradoxes, now it is considered as a resource to achieve tasks classically impossible.
Our activities in experimental quantum optics started in 1993 with a project on cavity effects in silvered microfibers. Almost at the same time we performed a first simple experiment in Quantum Cryptography ( QC ) [ see, e.g. publications, look up ] just for fun.
Nobody then [ 1993 ] would have imagined that in 1999 we would be one of the world leaders in this field. In fact, during a 2-years project supported by SWISSCOM, we developed an automated [ see, e.g. QC-setup, News, Crypto 98, Plug & Play ] with unprecedented performances.
We are currently participating in the Esprit-Project ” European Quantum Cryptography and Single Photon Technologies ” ( EQCSPOT ) in order to develop a QC-prototype.
Within national projects we developed compact sources of entangled photon pairs. With such a source we performed a record-breaking Bell experiment [ see, e.g. QC, Publications, Look Up ] between two [ 2 ] villages near Geneva [ Switzerland ] separated by more than 10 kilometers [ km ].
More generally, we are studying now the relation between non-locality and relativity and the application of novel sources of entangled photons for quantum communication. Our basic research also led to practical results such as an original setup for chromatic dispersion measurements, a novel technique for absolute detector calibration and the development of single-photon detectors in the near infra-red [ IR ].
– – – –
Since 2005, the THALES Group has successfully manufactured TV/4 format QWIP sensitive arrays in high rate production at the THALES Research and Technology Laboratory.
The full-TV array manufacturing started in 2007.
Uniformity and stability were the key parameters that led to the selection of this technology for thermal cameras.
Another widely claimed advantage for QWIPs was the versatility of the band-gap engineering and of III-V processing allowing custom design of quantum structures to fulfill the requirements of specific applications such as:
1. Very long wavelength ( VLWIR );
2. Multi-spectral detection; and,
3. Polarimetric detection.
Serial production of CATHERINE-XP and CATHERINE-MP has now started for the various programs for which both cameras have been selected. A review of the QWIP Production status, CATHERINE achievements and current programs are presented.
THALES based current strategy on very compact TI in order to address the largest range of platforms and applications.
THALES is working in cooperation with Sofradir and TRT / III-V lab on the evolution of product taking advantage of new capabilities offered by QWIP technology.
Future products are under development, based on:
1. Dual band;
2. Multi-band; and,
3. Polarimetric imagery.
– – – –
When you’re ready for more, there’s plenty out there.
Submitted for review and commentary by,
Research ( use ‘the following link’ containing ‘legacy archive llinks” only for researchers ):